Three (middle to) late Miocene plant macroremain assemblages (Pitsidia, Kassanoi and Metochia) from the Messara–Gavdos region, southern Crete
More details
Hide details
Geology Department, University of Patras, University Campus, 26504 Rio, Greece
Agriculture Department, Hellenic Mediterranean University, Estavromenos, 71410 Heraklion, Greece
State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart, Rosenstein 1, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany
Online publication date: 2020-12-30
Publication date: 2020-12-30
Acta Palaeobotanica 2020; 60(2): 333–437
Based on macroremains, we describe three fossil plant assemblages from the Miocene of the Messara Basin (southern Crete) and the adjacent Gavdos Island. The palaeoflora of Kassanoi, which is the oldest (Messara Basin, Viannos Fm, Serravallian/early Tortonian), is documented mainly by leaf imprints, including a fern, a conifer (Tetraclinis cf. salicornioides) and 23 angiosperms. The assemblage is dominated by Daphnogene polymorpha, Podocarpium podocarpum and Myrica lignitum. The plant record from Pitsidia (Messara Basin, Ambelouzos Fm, early Tortonian) comprises thousands of specimens. The plant fossils are preserved as imprints often covered by an inorganic encrustation (replica). One alga, 2 ferns, at least 5 conifers and more than 45 woody angiosperms were identified. Dominant taxa are Myrica and Pinus pitsidiensis, documented by numerous vegetative and reproductive organs (Zidianakis et al., 2015, 2016). Leaves of oaks (Q. pseudocastanea, Q. kubinyii) and Daphogene polymorpha as well as twigs of Taxodium dubium are also fairly common. From the palaeoflora of Metochia, which is the youngest (Gavdos Island, Metochia Fm, middle Tortonian), (Mantzouka et al., 2015), we report further taxa, including Quercus mediterranea, Ziziphus paradisiaca and a palm (Sabalites sp.). The vegetation is assessed both empirically (phytosociologically) and by Integrated Plant Record (IPR) Vegetation Analysis. The reconstructed vegetation models are presented in detail and discussed in the context of the geological and palaeontological settings of the area. The climate is assessed based on the Coexistence Approach (CA) and the Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program (CLAMP). The palaeoclimatic datasets reveal a warm temperate to subtropical climate, probably with a weak seasonal drought.
Agustí, J., Cabrera, L., Garcés, M., Llenas, M., 1999. Mammal turnover and global climate change in the late Miocene terrestrial record of the Vallès-Penedès Basin (NE Spain). In: Agustí, J., Rook, L., Andrews, P. (eds), Hominoid Evolution and Climatic Change in Europe. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 397–412.
Anastasakis, G.C., Dermitzakis, M.D., Triantaphyllou, M.V., 1995. Stratigraphic framework of the Gavdos island Neogene sediments. Newsletters on Strati­graphy 32(1), 1–15.
Antonarakou, A., 2001. Biostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental implications on Miocene sediments of Eastern Mediterranean (Gavdos Island). PhD Thesis, University of Athens, Greece.
Ash, A.W., Ellis, B., Hickey, L.J., Johnson, K.R., Wilf, P., 1999. Manual of leaf architecture: morphological description and categorization of dicotyledons and net-veined monocotyledonous angiosperms. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Belz, G., Mosbrugger, V., 1994. Systematisch-paläoökologische und paläoklimatische Analyse von Blattfloren im Mio/Pliozän der niederrheinishen Bucht (NW-Deutschland). Palaeontographica B 233, 19–156.
Benda, L., Meulenkamp, J.E., Zahariasse, W.J., 1974. Biostratigraphic correlations in the Eastern Mediterranean Neogene. 1. Correlation between planktonic foraminiferal, uvigerinid, sporomorphal and mammal zonations of the Cretan and Italian Neogene. Newsletter on Stratigraphy 3, 205–217.
Berger, W., 1953. Jungtertiäre Pflanzenreste aus dem Gebiete der Ägäis (Lemnos, Thessaloniki). Annales Géologiques pays Helléniques 5, 34–65.
Bertini, A., 2003. Palinological evidence of the upper Neogene environments in Italy. In: Kvaček, Z. (ed.), Neogene vegetation and climate reconstructions. Vol 46. Acta Universitatis Carolinae Geologica, Prague, pp. 15–25.
Böhme, M., 2003. The Miocene Climatic Optimum: evidence from ectothermic vertebrates of Central Europe. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 195, 389–401.
Bolge, A.L., 1986. The floral morphology and vascular anatomy of the Hamamelicaceae: subfamily Liquidamaroideae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 73, 325–347.
Bonneau, M., 1984. Correlation of the Hellenide nappes in the south-east Aegean and their tectonic reconstruction. In: Dixon J.E., Robertson A.H.F. (eds), The geological evolution of the eastern Mediterranean. Geological Society, Special Publ. 17, London, pp. 517–527.
Brachert, T., Reuter, M., Felis, T., Kröger, K.F., Lohmann, G., Michaels, A., Fassoulas, C., 2006. Porites corals from Crete (Greece) open a window into Late Miocene (10 Ma) seasonal and interannual climate variability. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 245(1–2), 81–94.
Braun, A., 1845. Die Tertiär-Flora von Öhningen. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie 1845, 164–173.
Bremer, B., Bremer, K., Chase, M.W., Reveal, J.L., Soltis, D.E., Soltis, P.S., Stevens, P.F., (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group) 2003. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141, 399–436.
Bremer, B., Bremer, K., Chase, M.W., Reveal, J.L., Soltis, D.E., Soltis, P.S., Stevens, P.F., (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group) 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161, 105–121.
Brongniart, A., 1822. Description des végétaux fossiles du terrain de sédiment supérieur. In: Cuvier, M.M.G., Brongniart, A. (eds), Description géologique dés environs de Paris. Chez G. Dufour et E. d‘Ocagne libraires, Paris, pp. 335–402.
Bronn, H.G., 1837–1838. Lethaea geognostica oder Abbildungen und Beschreibungen der für die Gebirgs-Formationen bezeichnendsten Versteinerungen. II. Das Kreide– und Molasse–Gebirge enthaltend. E. Schweizerbar’s Verlags-Buchhandlung, Stuttgart.
Bruch, A.A., Utescher, T., Mosbrugger, V., Gabrielyan, I., Ivanov, D.A., 2006. Late Miocene climate in the circum-Alpine realm – a quantitative analysis of terrestrial palaeofloras. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 238, 270–280.
Bruch, A.A., Uhl, G., Mosbrugger, V., 2007. Miocene climate in Europe – Patterns and evolution. – A first synthesis of NECLIME. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 253, 1–7.
Bruch, A.A., Utescher, T., Mosbrugger, V., NECLIME members 2011. Precipitation patterns in the Miocene of Central Europe and the development of continentality. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 304, 202–211.
Buckland, W., 1836. Geology and mineralogy considered with reference to natural theology. W. Pickering, London.
Butzmann, R., Ioakim, C., Velitzelos, D., Velitzelos, E., 2007a. Cenozoic ferns from Greece – indicators of climate and ecology. In: Elicki, O., Schneider, J.W. (eds), Fossile Ökosysteme. 77. Jahrestagung der Paläontologischen Gesellschaft, Kurzfassungen der Vorträge und Poster, Wissenschaftliche Mitteilungen, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut für Geologie, Freiberg, pp. 23–24.
Butzmann, R., Velitzelos, D., Velitzelos, E., 2007b. Oligozäne Makroflora aus den tuffitischen Mergeln des westlichen Ergene-Beckens, Tychero, W-Thrakien, NE- Griechenland. In: Elicki, O., Schneider, J.W. (eds), Fossile Ökosysteme. 77. Jahrestagung der Paläontologischen Gesellschaft, Kurzfassungen der Vorträge und Poster, Wissenschaftliche Mitteilungen, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut für Geologie, Freiberg, pp. 24–25.
Bůžek, Č., 1971. Tertiary flora from the northern part of Petipsy Area (North bohemian basin). Rozpravy Ústředního Ústavu Geologického 36, 1–118.
Chatzaras, V., Xypolias, P., Doutsos, T., 2006. Exhumation of high-pressure rocks under continuous compression: a working hypothesis for the southern Hellenides (Central Crete, Greece). Geological Magazine 143, 859–876.
Chevalier, A., 1901. Monographie des Myricaceés. Mémoires de la Société Nationale des Sciences Naturelles de Cherbourg 32, 85–340.
Christenhusz, M.J.M., Chase, M.W., 2014. Trends and concepts in fern classification. Annals of Botany 113(4), 571–594.
Christenhusz, M.J.M., Reveal, J.L., Farjon, A., Gardner, M.F., Mill, R.R., Chase, M.W., 2011. A new classification and linear sequence of extant gymnosperms. Phytotaxa 19, 55–70.
Creutzburg, N., Seidel, E., 1975. Zum Stand der Geologie des präneogens auf Kreta. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abh. 149, 363–383.
Czeczott, H., 1951. Środkowo-miocéńska flora Zalesiec koło Wiśniowca. I. Acta Geologica Polonica 2, 349–445.
Denk, T., 2004. Revision of Fagus from the Tertiary of Europe and southwestern Asia and its phylogenetic implications. Documenta Naturae 150, 1–72.
Denk, T., 2016. Palaeoecological interpretation of the late Miocene landscapes and vegetation of northern Greece: a comment to Merceron et al., 2016 (Geobios, doi:10.1016/j.geobios.2016.01.004). Geobios 49, 135–146.
Denk, T., Velitzelos, D., Güner, T.H., Bouchal J.M., Grímsson, F., Grimm, G., 2017. Taxonomy and palaeoecology of two widespread western Eurasian Neogene sclerophyllous oak species: Quercus drymeja Unger and Q. mediterranea Unger. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 241, 98–128.
Denk, T., Zohner, C.M., Grimm, G.W., Renner, S.S., 2018. Plant fossils reveal major biomes occupied by the late Miocene Old-World Pikermian fauna. Nature Ecology and Evolution 2, 1864–1870. .
Dermitzakis, D.M., 1990. Paleogeography, geodynamic processes and event stratigraphy during the late Cenozoic of the Aegean area. Accademia Nazionale de Lincei 85, 263–288.
Dermitzakis, D.M., Papanikolaou, D.J., 1981. Paleogeography and geodynamics of the Aegean region during the Neogene. Annales Géologiques pays Helléniques 30, 245–289.
Dermitzakis, M.D., Velitzelos, E., 1985. Tertiary flora remains from Aegean area: The macroflora from Chios Island (Greece). Rapport Commission International Mer Méditerranée 29(2), 165–166.
Dermitzakis, M.D., Georgiades-Dikeoulia, E., Velitzelos, E., 1985–86. Ecostratigraphic observation on the Messinian deposits of Akropotamos Area (Kavala, N. Greece). Annales Géologiques pays Helléniques 33, 367–376.
Dilcher, D.L., 1974. Approaches to the identification of angiosperm leaf remains. Botanical Review 40(1), 1–157.
Doweld, A.B., 2017. Nomenclatural novelties and taxonomic changes for extant and fossils Populus (Salicaceae). Kew Bulletin 72, 1–6.
Dransfield, J., Uhl, N.W., Asmussen, C.B., Baker, W.J., Harley M., Lewis, C., 2008. Genera Palmarum: The evolution and classification of palms. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Drivaliari, A., 1993. Images polliniques et paléoenvironnements au Néogène supérieur en Méditerranée orientale. Aspects climatiques et paléogéographiques d’un transect latitudinal (de la Roumanie au Delta du Nil). PhD Thesis, University of Montpellier, France.
Ellis, B., Daly, D.C., Hickey, L.J., Johnson, K.R., Mitchell, J.D., Wilf, P., Wing, S.L., 2009. Manual of leaf architecture. Cornell University Press, New York.
Erdei, B., Kvaček, Z., 1997. A newly recorded collection of the early Miocene flora of Kymi (Greece) previously misinterpreted as the Upper Miocene flora of Tallya (NE Hungary). Annales Historico-naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 89, 5–10.
Estenban, L.G., De Palacios, P., 2009. Comparative wood anatomy in Abietoideae (Pinaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 160, 184–196.
Ettingshausen, C.v., 1851. Die tertiäre Flora der Umgebungen von Wien. Abhandlungen der Kaiserlich – Königlichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt 1, 1–36.
Ettingshausen, C.v., 1852. Fossile Pflanzenreste aus dem trachytischen Sandstein von Heiligenkreuz bei Kremnitz. Abhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt 1, 1–14.
Fassoulas, C., 2001. The tectonic development of a Neogene basin at the leading edge of the active European margin: the Heraklion basin, Crete, Greece. Journal of Geodynamics 31, 49–70.
Fauquette, S., Suc, J.-P., Jiménez-Moreno, G., Micheels, A., Jost, A., Favre, E., Bachiri-Taoufiq, N., Bertini, A., Clet-Pellerin, M., Diniz, F., Farjanel, G., Feddi, N., Zheng, Z., 2007. Latitudinal climatic gradients in Western European and Mediterranean regions from the Mid-Miocene (c. 15 Ma) to the Mid-Pliocene (c. 3.5 Ma) as quantified from pollen data. In: Williams, M., Haywood, A., Gregory, J., Schmidt, D.N. (eds), Deep-time perspectives on climate change: Marrying the signal from computer models and biological proxies. Micropaleontol. Soc., Geol. Soc. London, Spec. Publ., London, pp. 481–502.
Ferguson, D.K., 1989. A survey of the Liquidambaroideae (Hamamelidaceae) with a view to elucidating its fossil record. In: Crane, P.R., Blackmore, S. (eds), Evolution, systematics, and fossil history of the Hamamelidae. Vol. 1. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 249–272.
Ferguson, D.K., Pingen, M., Zetter, R., Jofmann, C.C., 1998. Advances in our knowledge of the Miocene plant assemblage from Kreuzau, Germany. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 101, 147–177.
Fortelius, M., Eronen, J., Liu, L., Pushkina, D., Tesakov, A., Vislobokova, I., Zhang, Z., 2006. Late Miocene and Pliocene large land mammals and climatic changes in Eurasia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 238, 219–227.
François, L., Utescher, T., Favre, E., Henrot, A.-J., Warnant, P., Micheels, A., Erdei, B., Suc, J.-P., Cheddadi R., Mosbrugger, V., 2011. Modelling Late Miocene vegetation in Europe: Results of the CARAIB model and comparison with palaeovegetation data. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 304, 359–378.
Fritel, P.H., 1921. Flore aquiranienne d’Oropo (Grèce). Bulletin du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle 27, 471–476.
Gabrielyan, I., Kovar-Eder, J., 2011. The genus Acer from the lower/middle Pleistocene Sisian Formation, Syunik region, South Armenia. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 165, 111–134.
Gaudant, J., Tsaparas, N., Antonarakou, A., Drinia, H., Dernitzakis, M.D., 2005. The Tortonian fish fauna of Gavdos Island (Greece). Comptes Rendus Palevol 4, 687–695.
Goeppert, H.R., 1852. Beiträge zur Tertiärflora Schlesiens. Palaeontographica 2, 260–282.
Goeppert, H.R., 1855. Die tertiäre Flora von Schossnitz in Schlesien. Heyn’sche Buchhandlung, Görlitz.
Gregor, H.J., 1978. Die miozänen Frucht- und Samen-Floren der Oberpfälzer Braunkohle. I. Funde aus den sandigen Zwischenmitteln. Palaeontographica B 167(1–3), 8–103.
Gregor, H.J., 1993. Wutzlers Amberbaum – ein neues exotisches Element aus dem Obermiozän von Hambach (Rheinbraun, Koln). Documenta Naturae 80, 1–9.
Güner, H.T., Bouchal, J.M., Köse, N., Göktaş, F., Mayda, S., Denk, T., 2017. Landscape heterogeneity in the Yatağan Basin (southwestern Turkey) during the middle Miocene inferred from plant macrofossils. Palaeontographica B 296(1–6), 113–171.
Hably, L., 2020. The Karpatian (late early Miocene) flora of the Mecsek area. Acta Palaeobotanica 60(1), 51–122.
Hably, L., Kvaček, Z., 1997. Early Pliocene plant megafossils from the volcanic area in West Hungary. Studia Naturalia 10, 5–151.
Hantke, R., 1954. Die fossile Flora der obermiozänen Oehninger Fundstelle Schrotzburg. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 80, 31–118. .
Heer, O., 1853. Übersicht der Tertiärflora der Schweiz. Mittheilungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft Zürich 3(7), 88–153.
Heer, O., 1855–1859. Flora Tertiaria Helvetiae – Die tertiäre Flora der Schweiz. Vol. 1–3. J. Wurster et Compagnie, Winterhud.
Heimann, K.O., Junk, W., Braune, K., 1975. Schichtenfolge und Flora des Messinien in Nord-Korfu (Griechenland). Mitteilungen der Bayerischen Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und Historische Geologie 15, 169–177.
Herendeen, P.S., 1992a. Podocarpium podocarpum (A. Braun) Herendeen, comb. n., the correct name for Podogonium knorrii (A. Braun) Heer, nom. illegit. (Leguminosae). Taxon 41, 731–736.
Herendeen, P.S., 1992b. The fossil history of the Leguminosae from the Eocene of southeastern North America. In: Herendeen, P.S., Dilcher, D.L. (eds), Advances in Legume systematics, part 4. The Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, pp. 85–160.
Hickey, L.J., 1973. Classification of the architecture of dicotyledonous leaves. American Journal of Botany 60, 17–33.
Hilgen, F.J., Krijgsman, W., Langereis, C.G., Lourens, L.J., Santarelli, A., Zachariasse, W.J., 1995. Extending the astronomical polarity time scale into the Miocene. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 136, 495–510.
Hummel, A., 1983. The Pliocene leaf flora from Ruszow near Zary in Lower Silesia, SW Poland. Prace Muzeum Ziemi 36, 9–104.
Ickert-Bond, S.M., Wen, J., 2006. Phylogeny and biogeography of Altingiaceae: Evidence from combined analysis of five non-coding chloroplast regions. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39, 512–528.
Ickert-Bond, S.M., Wen, J., 2013. A taxonomic synopsis of Altingiaceae with nine new combinations. Phytokeys 31, 21–61.
Ickert-Bond, S.M., Pigg, K.B., Wen, J., 2005. Comparative infructescence morphology in Liquidambar (Altingiaceae) and its evolutionary significance. American Journal of Botany 92, 1234–1255.
I.G.M.E., 1993. Geological map of Greece, 1:50.000. Institute of Mining and Subsurface Research, ­Athens.
I.G.M.E., 1994. Geological map of eastern Messara, Crete, 1:25.000. Institute of Mining and Subsurface Research, Athens.
I.G.M.E., 2002. Geological map of Crete, 1:50.000, sheets: Ano Viannos and Mochos. Institute of Mining and Subsurface Research, Athens.
Iljinskaya, I.A., 1968. Neogenovye flory Zakarpatskoj oblasti USSR. Izdatelstvo Nauka, Leningrand.
Ivanov, D., Utescher, T., Mosbrugger, V., Syabryaj, S., Djordjević-Milutinović, C., Molchanoff, S., 2011. Miocene vegetation and climate dynamics in Eastern and Central Paratethys (Southeastern Europe). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 304, 262–275.
Jähnichen, H., Mai, D.H., Walther, H., 1977. Blätter und Früchte von Engelhardia Lesch. ex Bl. (Juglandaceae) aus dem europäischen Tertiär. Feddes Repertorium 88(5–6), 323–363.
Jähnichen, H., Friedrich, W., Takáč, M., 1984. Engelhardioid leaves and fruits from the European Tertiary. Part II. Tertiary Research 6, 109–134.
Jiménez-Moreno, G., Suc, J.-P., 2007. Middle Miocene latitudinal climatic gradient in Western Europe: Evidence from pollen records. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 253, 224–241.
Jiménez-Moreno, G., Popescu, S.-M., Ivanov, D., Suc, J.-P., 2007. Neogene flora, vegetation and climate dynamics in southeastern Europe and the northeastern Mediterranean. In: Williams, M., Haywood, A.M., Gregory, F.J., Schmidt, D.N. (eds), Deep-Time Perspectives on Climate Change: Marrying the Signal from Computer Models and Biological Proxies. Geological Society London, Special Publications, London, pp. 503–516.
Jones, J.H., Dilcher, D.L., 1980. Investigations of angiosperms from the Eocene of North America: Rhamnus marginatus (Rhamnaceae) reexamined. American Journal of Botany 67, 959–967.
Kleinhölter, K., 1994a. Die neogenen Floren der Peloponnes. Ph.D. Thesis, Münster University, ­Germany.
Kleinhölter, K., 1994b. Zur stratigraphischen Einstufung der Platana-Formation im Pyrgos- und Zacharo- Becken (West-Peloponnes, Griechenland). Münstersche Forschungen zur Geologie und Palaeontologie 76, 263–270.
Kleinhölter, K., 1995. Oberpliozäne Makrofloren aus dem Bereich des Patras-, Rion- und Korinth-Grabens (Peloponnes und SW-Kontinentalgriechenlnad). Münstersche Forschungen zur Geologie und Palaeontologie 77, 467–478.
Knobloch, E., 1964. Haben Cinnamomum scheuchzeri Heer und Cinnamomum polymorphum (Al. Braun) Heer nomenklatorisch richtige Namen. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte 10, 597–603.
Knobloch, E., Kvaček, Z., 1976. Miozäne Blätterfloren vom Westrand der Böhmischen Masse. Rozpravy Ústředního Ústavu Geologického 42, 1–131.
Knobloch, E., Velitzelos, E., 1986a. Die obermiozäne Flora von Likudi bei Elassona (Thessalien, Griechenland). Documenta Naturae 29, 5–20.
Knobloch, E., Velitzelos, E., 1986b. Die obermiozäne Flora von Prosilion bei Kozani (Sud-Mazedonien, Griechenland). Documenta Naturae 29, 29–33.
Knobloch, E., Velitzelos, E., 1987. New leaf floras in the Neogene of Greece. Věstník Ústředního Ústavu Geologického 62, 157–164.
Kolakovsky, A.A., 1957. Pervoe dopolnenie k kodorskoj pliotsenovoj flore (Meore-Athara). Trudy Sukhumskogo Botanicheskogo Sada 10, 237–318.
Kolakovsky, A.A., 1964. Pliotsenovaja flora Kodora. Sukhumskii Botanicheskii Sad Monografii 1, 1–209.
Kopp, K.O., 1977. Stratigraphic and tectonic sequence of Crete. In: Closs, H., Roeder, H.D., Schmidt, K.E. (eds), Alps, Apennines, Hellenides. Schweizerbart, Stuttgart, pp. 439–442.
Kovar-Eder, J., Krainer, B., 1991. Flora und Sedimentologie der FundsteIle Reith bei Unterstorcha, Bezirk Feldbach in der Steiermark (Kirchberger Schotter, Pannonium C, Miozän). Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt 134(4), 737–771.
Kovar-Eder, J., Kvaček, Z., 2007. The integrated plant record (IPR) to reconstruct Neogene vegetation: the IPR-vegetation analysis. Acta Palaeobotanica 47(2), 391–418.
Kovar-Eder, J. Teodoridis, V., 2018. The Middle Miocene Central European plant record revisited; widespread subhumid sclerophyllous forests indicated. Fossil Imprint 74(1–2), 115–134.
Kovar-Eder, J., Kvaček, Z., Ströbitzer-Hermann, M., 2004. The Miocene Flora of Parschlug (Styria, Austria). Revision and Synthesis. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 105A, 45–159.
Kovar-Eder, J., Kvaček, Z., Martinetto, E., Roiron, P., 2006. Late Miocene to Early Pliocene vegetation of southern Europe (7–4 Ma) as reflected in the megafossil plant record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 238, 321–339.
Kovar-Eder, J., Jechorek, H., Kvaček, Z., Parashiv, V., 2008. The integrated plant record: an essential tool for reconstructing Neogene zonal vegetation in Europe. Palaios 23, 97–111.
Kovar-Eder, J., Givulescu, R., Hably, L., Kvaček, Z., Mihajlovic, D., Teslenko, J., Walther, H., Zastawniak, E., 1994. Floristic changes in the areas surrounding the Paratethys during Neogene time. In: Boutler, M.C., Fischer, H.C. (eds), Cenozoic Plants and Climates of the Arctic. NATO ASI ser. I, vol. 27. Springer, Berlin, pp. 347–369.
Krijgsman, W., Hilgen, F.J., Langereis, C.G., 1995. Late Miocene magnetostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and cyclostratigraphy in the Mediterranean. Earth and Planetary Science Letter 136, 475–494.
Krijgsman, W, Hilgen F.J., Langereis, C.G., Zachariasse, W.J., 1994. The age of the Tortonian/Messinian boundary. Earth and Planetary Science Letter 121, 533–547.
Kröger, K.F., 2004. Sedimentary environments and climate change: a case study (late Miocene, central Crete). Ph.D. Thesis, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, Mainz, Germany.
Kunzmann, L., Kvaček, Z., Mai, D.H., Walther, H., 2009. The genus Taxodium (Cupressaceae) in the Palaeogene and Neogene of Central Europe. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 153, 153–183.
Kvaček, Z., 1989. Fosilní Tetraclinis Mast. (Cupressaceae). Časopis Národního Muzea. Rada Přírodovědna 155/86, 45–53.
Kvaček, Z., Sakala, J., 1999. Twig with attached leaves, fruits and seeds of Decodon (Lythraceae) from the Lower Miocene of northern Bohemia, and implications for the dentification of detached leaves and seeds. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 107, 201–222.
Kvaček, Z., Walther, H., 1989. Paleobotanical studies in Fagaceae of the European Tertiary. Plant Systematics and Evolution 162, 213–229.
Kvaček, Z., Manchester, S.R., Schorn, H.E., 2000. Cones, seeds, and foliage of Tetraclinis salicornioides (Cupressaceae) from the Oligocene and Miocene of western North America: A geographic extension of the European tertiary species. International Journal of Plant Sciences. 161(2), 331–344.
Kvaček, Z., Velitzelos, D., Velitzelos, E., 2002. Late Miocene Flora of Vegora Macedonia N. Greece. Koralis press, Athens.
Lear, C.H., Elderfield, H., Wilson, P.A., 2003. A Cenozoic seawater Sr/Ca record from benthic foraminiferal calcite and its application in determining global weathering fluxes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 208, 69–84.
Lin, C.P., Huang, J.P., Wu, C.S., Hsu, C.Y., Chaw, S.M., 2010. Comparative chloroplast genomics reveals the evolution of Pinaceae genera and subfamilies. Genome Biology Evolution 2, 504–517.
Lister, G.S., Banga, G., Feenstra, A., 1984. Metamorphic core complexes of cordilleran type in the Cyclades, Aegean Sea, Greece. Geology 12, 221–225.
Mai, D.H., 1994. Two conifers – Tetraclinis Mast. (Cupressaceae) and Metasequoia Miki (Taxodiaceae) – relicts of palaeoclimatic indicators of the past. In: Boutler, M.C., Fischer, H.C. (eds), Cenozoic plants and climates of the Arctic. NATO ASI ser. 1, vol. 27. Springer, Berlin, pp. 199–213.
Mai, D.H., 1995. Tertiäre Vegetationsgeschichte Europas. Gustav Fisher Verl., Jena.
Mai, D.H., 1997. Die oberoligozänen Floren an Nordrand der Sachsischen Lausitz. Palaeontographica B 244, 1–124.
Mai, D.H., 1998. Contribution to the flora of the middle Oligocene Calau Beds in Brandenburg, Germany. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 101, 43–70.
Mai, D.H., 1999. Die untermiozänen Floren aus der Spremberger Folge und dem. 2. Flözhorizont in der Lausitz. Teil II, Polycarpicae und Apetale. Palaeontographica B 251(1–3): 1–70.
Mai, D.H., Velitzelos, E., 2007. The fossil flora of Kallithea (Rhodes, Greece) at the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary. Palaeontographica B 277, 75–99.
Manchester, S.R., 1987. The fossil history of the Juglandaceae. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 21, 1–137. .
Mantzouka, D., Kvaček, Z., Teodoridis, V., Utescher, T., Tsaparas, N., Karakitsios, V., 2015. A new late Miocene (Tortonian) flora from Gavdos Island in southernmost Greece evaluated in the context of vegetation and climate in the Eastern Mediterranean. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abh. 275(1), 47–81.
Maravelis, A., Manutsoglou, E., Konstantopoulos, P., Pantopoulos, G., Makrodimitras, G., Zoumpoulis, E., Zelilidis, A., 2015. Hydrocarbon plays and prospectivity of the Mediterranean ridge. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects 37, 347–355.
Massalongo, A., Scarabelli, E.G., 1859. Studii sulla flora fossile e geologia stratigrafica del Senigalliese. Tip. Galeati I. e figlio, Imola.
Mertz-Kraus, R., Brachert, T.C., Jochum, K.P., Reuter, M., Stoll, B., 2009. LA-ICP-MS analyses on coral growth increments reveal heavy winter rain in the Eastern Mediterranean at 9 Ma. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 273, 25–40.
Meulenkamp, J.E., Sissingh, W., 2003. Tertiary palaeogeography and tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Northern and Southern Peri-Tethys platforms and the intermediate domains of the African-Eurasian convergent plate boundary zone. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 196(1–2), 209–228.
Meulenkamp, J.E., Dermitzakis, M., Georgiadou-Diceoulia, E., Jonkers, H.A., Beoger, H., 1979. Field Guide to the Neogene of Crete. University of Athens, Department of Geology and Palaeontology, ser. A 32, 1–32.
Meulenkamp, J.E., Wortel, M.J.R., Van Wamel, W.A., Spakman, W., Hoogerduynstrating, E., 1988. On the Hellenic subduction zone and the geodynamic evolution of Crete since the late Middle Miocene. Tectonophysics 146, 203–215.
Meulenkamp, J.E., Van der Zwaan, G.J., Van Wamel, W.A. 1994. On late Miocene to recent vertical motions in the Cretan segment of the Hellenic arc. Tectonophysics 234, 53–72.
Miyawaki, A., Iwatsuki, K., Grandtner, M. 1994. Vegetation of Eastern North America. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.
Mohr, B., Köhler, J., Adamek-Jacobs, E., 1991. A late Miocene leaf flora from southern Crete (Greece). Pan-european Palaeobotanical Conference, abstract volume, Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria, p. 26.
Mosbrugger, V., Utescher, T. 1997. The coexistence approach – a method for quantitative reconstructions of Tertiary terrestrial palaeoclimate data using plant fossils. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 134, 61–86.
Mosbrugger, V., Utescher, T., Dilcher, D.L., 2005. Cenozoic continental climatic evolution of Central Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102(42), 14964–14969.
Mountrakis, D., Tranos, M., Papazachos, C., Thomaidou, E., Karagianni, E., Vamvakaris, D., 2006. Neotectonic and seismological data concerning major active faults and the stress regimes of Northern Greece. In: Robertson, M.N.F., Mountrakis, D. (eds), Tectonic Development of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Vol. 260. Geological Society, special publ., London, pp. 649–670.
Nikitin, P.A., 1929. The systematic position of the fossil genus Diclidocarya E.M. Reid. Journal of Botany 67, 33–38.
Papanikolaou, D., Vassilakis, E., 2010. Thrust faults and extensional detachment faults in Cretan tectono-stratigraphy: Implications for Middle Miocene extension. Tectonophysics 488, 233–247.
Pingen, M., Ferguson, D.K., Collinson, M.E., 1994, Homalanthus costatus Mai: a new Miocene fruit of Cinnamomum Schaeffer (Lauraceae). Palaeontographica B 232, 155–174.
Postma, G., Hilgen, F.J., Zachariasse, W.J., 1993. Precession-punctuated growth of a late Miocene submarine-fun lobe on Gavdos (Greece). Terra nova 5, 438–444.
Procházka, M., Bůžek Č., 1975. Maple leaves from the Tertiary of North Bohemia. Rozpravy Ústředního Ústavu Geologického 41, 1–86.
Read, R.W., Hickey, L.J., 1972. A revised classification of fossil palm and palm-like leaves. Taxon 21: 129–137.
Reid, E.M., 1920. Recherche sur quelques graines pliocènes du Pont-de-Gail (Cantal). Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, ser. IV 20, 48–87.
Reveal, J.L., 2012. An outline of a classification scheme for extant flowering plants. Phytoneuron 37, 1–221.
Ring, U., Glodny, J., Will, T., Thomson, S.N., 2010. The Hellenic subduction system: high-pressure metamorphism, exhumation, normal faulting, and large-scale extension. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 38, 45–76.
Sachse, M., 1997. Die Makrilia-flora (Kreta, Griechenland) – Ein Beitrag zur Neogenen Klima- und Vegetationsgeschichte des östlichen Mittelmeergebietes. PhD Thesis, ETH, Eidgenössischen Technischen Hochschule Zürich, Switzerland.
Sachse, M., 2004. Die neogene Mega- und Mikroflora von Makrilia auf Kreta und ihre Aussagen zur Klima- und Vegetationgeschichte des östlichen Mittelmeergebietes. Flora Tertiaria Mediterranea 6(12), 1–323.
Sachse, M., Mohr, B.A.R., 1996. Eine obermiozäne Makro- and Mikroflora aus Südkreta (Griechenland), und deren paläoklimatische Interpretation-Vorläufige Betrachtungen. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abh. 200, 149–182.
Sachse, M., Mohr, B.A.R., Suc, J.P., 1999. The Makrilia flora. A contribution to the Neogene history of the climate and vegetation of the Eastern Mediterranean. Acta Palaeobotanica suppl. 2, 365–372.
Saporta, G., 1865. Études sur la végétation du Sud-Est de la France à l’époque tertiairia deuxième partie III. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Botanique 5, 5–152.
Saporta, G., 1873. Examen critique d’une collection de plants fossiles de Coumi (Eubée). Annales scientifiques de l’École normale supérieure 2, 325–352.
Schimani, V., Schneider, H., 1993–1995. Die Pflanzenfossilien des Burdigal der Mittel-Hellenischen Senke im Gebiet Nordöstlich von Trikala. Annales Géologiques pays Helléniques 36, 467–476.
Seidel, E., Kreuzer, H., Harre, W., 1982. A late Oligocene/early Miocene high pressure belt in the External Hellinides. Geologisches Jahrbuch 23, 165–206.
Sen, S., Valet, J.-P., Ioakim, C., 1986. Magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Neogene deposits of Kastellios Hill (Central Crete, Greece). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 53, 321–334.
Simonelli, V., 1894. Appunti sopra i terreni neogenici e quarternari dell’ isola di Candia. Atti della reale Accademia dei Lincei 5, 265–268.
Spicer, R.A., Valdes, P.J., Spicer, T.E.V., Craggs, H.J., Srivastava, G., Mehrotra, R.C., Yang, J., 2009. New Developments in CLAMP: Calibration using global gridded meteorological data. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 283, 91–98.
Sternberg, K.v., 1823. Versuch einer geognostisch – botanischen Darstellung der Flora der Vorwelt. E. Brenck‘s Witwe, Regensburg.
Ströbitzer-Hermann, M., 2002. Systematik, Variabilität, regionale und stratigraphische Verbreitung sowie Ökologie der Gattung Acer L. in Mitteleuropa vom Oligo- bis ins Pliozän. Ph.D. Thesis, Universität Wien, Austria.
Suc, J.-P., Popescu, S.-M., Fauquette, S., Bessedik, M., Jiménez-Moreno, G., Bachiri-Taoufiq, N., Zheng, Z., Médail, F., Klotz, S., 2018. Reconstruction of Mediterranean flora, vegetation and climate for the last 23 million years based on an extensive pollen dataset. Ecologia mediterranea, Faculté des sciences et techniques de St Jérôme, Institut méditerranéen d’écologie et de paléoécologie 44(2), 53–85.
Teller, F., 1880. Geologische Beobachtungen auf der Insel Chios. Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 40, 340–356.
ten Veen, J.H., Postma, G., 1999. Neogene tectonics and basin fill patterns in the Hellenic outer-arc (Crete, Greece). Basin Research 11, 223–241.
Teodoridis, V., Kovar-Eder, J., Mazouch, P., 2011. Integrated plant record (IPR) vegetation analysis applied to modern vegetation in south China and Japan. Palaios 26, 623–638.
Thiede, J., Winkler, A., Wolfwelling, T., Eldholm, O., Myhre, A.M., Baumann, K.H., Henrich, R., Stein, R., 1998. Late Cenozoic history of the polar North Atlantic – results from ocean drilling. Quaternary Science Reviews 17, 185–208.
Tsaparas, N., 2005. Contribution in the history of sedimentation of the marine formations from the Late Cenozoic of Gavdos Island. PhD Thesis, University of Athens, Greece.
Unger, F., 1841–1847. Chloris protogaea: Beiträge zur Vorwelt. W. Engelmann, Leipzig.
Unger, F., 1850a. Genera et species plantarum fossilium. W. Braumüller, Wien.
Unger, F., 1850b. Die fossile Flora von Sotzka. Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 2, 127–197.
Unger, F., 1862. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse einer Reise in Griechenland und in den ionischen Inseln. W. Braumüller, Wien.
Unger, F., 1867. Die fossile Flora von Kumi auf der Insel Euboea. Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 27, 27–87.
Utescher, T., Mosbrugger, V., 2015. The Palaeoflora Database. Available from: http://www.palaeoflora.de. Accessed February 2018.
Utescher, T., Erdei, B., François, l., Mosbrugger, V., 2007. tree diversity in the Miocene forests of Western Eurasia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 253, 226–250.
Utescher, T., Bruch, A.A., Micheels, A., Mosbrugger, V., Popova, S., 2011. Cenozoic climate gradients in Eurasia – a palaeo-perspective on future climate change? Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 304, 351–358.
Utescher, T., Bruch, A.A., Erdei, B., François, L., Ivanov, D., Jacques, F.M.B., Kern, A.K., Liu, Y.C., Mosbrugger, V., Spicer, R.A., 2014. The Coexistence Approach – Theoretical background and practical considerations of using plant fossil for climate quantification. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 410, 58–73.
Vafidis, A., Andronikidis, N., Economou, N., Panagopoulos, G., Zelilidis, A., Manoutsoglou, E., 2012. Reprocessing and interpretation of seismic reflection data at Messara Basin, Crete, Greece. Journal of the Balkan Geophysical Society 15, 31–40.
Van der Weerd, A., 1983. Palynology of some Upper Miocene and Pliocene formations in Greece. Geologisches Jahrbuch Reihe B 48, 3–63.
van Hinsbergen, D.J.J., Meulenkamp, J.E., 2006. Neogene supradetachment basin development on Crete (Greece) during exhumation of the South Aegean core complex. Basin Research 18, 103–124.
Velitzelos, D., Bouchal, J.M., Denk, T., 2014. Review of the Cenozoic floras and vegetation of Greece. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 204, 56–117.
Velitzelos, E., 1983. Τριτογενή φυτικά λείψανα από την Αιγηϊδα–Η μακροπαλαιοχλωρίδα της νήσου Εύβοιας (Tertiary plant remains from Aegeis–The macroflora of Euboea Island). Evia Archive Studies 25, 281–288 [in Greek].
Velitzelos, E., 1993. Neue paläofloristische Daten zu känophytischen Floren Griechenlands. Documenta Naturae 78, 1–17.
Velitzelos, E., Gregor, H.-J., 1984. Φυτικά λείψανα του κατώτερου Μειόκαινου από τη λιγνιτοφόρο λεκάνη Αλιβερίου Ευβοίας (Early Miocene plant remains from the lignite-bearing Aliveri basin, Euboea). Evia Archive Studies 25, 184–191 [in Greek].
Velitzelos, E., Gregor, H.-J., 1990. Some aspects of the Neogene floral history in Greece. Review Palaeobotany and Palynology 62, 291–307.
Velitzelos, E., Knobloch, E., 1986. Die pliozäne Flora von Skoura bei Sparta auf dem Peloponnes (Griechenland). Documenta Naturae 29(1), 21–28.
Velitzelos, E., Kvaček, Z., 1999. Review of the Late Miocene flora of Vegora, Western Macedonia, Greece. Acta Palaeobotanica suppl. 2, 419–427.
Velitzelos, E., Petrescu, I., 1981. Seltene pflanzliche Fossilien aus dem Braunkohlenbecken von Vegora. Annales Géologiques pays Helléniques 30, 767–777.
Velitzelos, E., Schneider, H.E., 1977. Jungtetiäre Pflanzenfunde aus dem Becken von Vegora in West-Mazedonien (Griechenland). Annles Musei Goulandris 3, 173–180.
Velitzelos, E., Bůžek, C., Kvaček, Z., 1992. Contribution to the Lower Miocene flora of Aliveri (Island of Evia, Greece). Documenta Naturae 74, 10–25.
Velitzelos, E., Kvaček, Z., Velitzelos, D., 1999. Καινοφυτικές χλωρίδες της Ελλάδος (Cenophytic flora of Greece). Proceedings of the International Symposium for protected natural areas and environmental education, Sigri, Lesbos, Greece, pp. 460–467 [in Greek].
Velitzelos, E., Kvaček, Z., Denk, T., Velitzelos, D., 2002a. Palaeontology and palaeobotany. In: Velitzelos D. (ed.), Field guide to the Neogene of the Island of Evia – Early Miocene flora of Kymi, 6th Europ. Palaeobotany-Palynology Conference, Athens, pp. 10–61.
Velitzelos, E., Velitzelos, D., Papagiannis, G., Diamantopoulou, E., 1998. Η συμβολή των Taxodiaceae-Ταξοδήδες στον καινοφυτικό Ελλάδος (summary: Contribution of Taxodiaceae in the Greek Cenophytic). Proceedings of 3rd international symposium on protected areas managment and natural monuments, Molyvos, Lesbos, Greece, pp. 272–291.
Velitzelos, E., Teodoridis, V., Kvaček, Z., Velitzelos, D. 2002b. Plio-Pleistocene flora from Archangelos, Rhodes Island, Greece. 6th Europ. Palaeobotany-Palynology Conference, abstracts volume, Athens, pp. 184–185.
Vicente, J.C., 1970. Étude géologique de ile de Gavdos (Grèce), la plus meridional de l’Europe. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 7(12), 481–495.
Walther, H., 1972. Studien über tertiäre Acer Miltteleuropas. Abhandlungen des Staatlichen Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie 19, 1–309.
Walther, H., Zastawniak, E., 1991. Fagaceae from Sośnica and Malczyce (near Wrocław, Poland). A revision of original materials by Goeppert 1852 and 1855 and a study of new collections. Acta Palaeobotanica 31, 153–199. .
Wang, Q., Dilcher, D.L., Lott, T.A., 2007. Podocarpium A. Braun ex Stizenberger 1851 from the middle Miocene of Eastern China, and its palaeoecology and biogeography. Acta Palaeobotanica 47(1), 237–251.
Wang, Y-F, Manchester, S.R., 2000. Chaneya, a new genus of winged fruit from the Tertiary of North America and eastern Asia. International Journal of Plant Sciences 161(1), 167–178.
Watson, L., Dallwitz, M.J., 2008. The families of gymnosperm, DELTA database. Available from: http://www.delta-intkey.com/gy.... Accessed Mai 2018.
Weber, O. 1852. Die Tertiärflora der Niederrheinischen Braunkholenformation. Palaeontographica 2, 3–122.
Wessel, P., Weber, O., 1855. Neuer Beitrag zur Tertiärflora der niederrheinischen Braunkohlenformation. Palaeontographica 4, 111–130.
Winkler, D.W., Dunn, P.O., McCulloch, C.E., 2002. Predicting the effects of climate change on avian lifehistory traits. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 99, 13595–13599.
Wolfe, J.A., Spicer, R.A., 1999. Fossil Leaf Character States: Multivariate Analysis. In: Jones, T.P., Rowe, N.P. (eds), Fossil Plants and Spores: Modern Techniques. Geological Society, London, pp. 233–239.
Wolfe, J.A., Tanai, T., 1987. Systematics, phylogeny, and distribution of Acer (maples) in the Cenozoic of Western North America. Journal of the Faculty of Sciences Hokkaido University 22(1), 1–246.
Worobiec, G., 2003. New fossil floras from Neogene deposits in the Bełchatów Mine. Acta Palaeobotanica suppl. 3, 3–133.
Yang, J., Spicer, R.A., Spicer, T.E.V., Li, C-S., 2011. ‘CLAMP’ Online: a new web-based palaeoclimate tool and its application to the terrestrial Paleogene and Neogene of North America. Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments 91, 163–183.
Young, D.J., Watson, L., 1969. Softwood structure and the classification of conifers. New Phytol. 68, 427–432.
Zachariasse, W.J., 1975. Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Late Neogene of Crete (Greece). Utrecht Micropaleontological Bulletins 11, 1–171.
Zachariasse, W.J., van Hinsbergen, D.J.J., Fortuin, A.R., 2011. Formation and fragmentation of a late Miocene supradetachment basin in central Crete: implications for exhumation mechanisms of high-pressure rocks in the Aegean forearc. Basin Research 23(6), 678–701.
Zachos, J., Pagani, M., Sloan, L., Thomas, E., Billups, K., 2001. Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present. Science 292, 686–693.
Zelilidis, A., Tserolas, P., Chamilaki, E., Pasadakis, N., Kostopoulou, S., Maravelis, A.G., 2016. Hydrocarbon prospectivity in the Hellenic trench system: organic geochemistry and source rock potential of upper Miocene–lower Pliocene successions in the eastern Crete Island, Greece. International Journal of Earth Sciences 105, 1859–1878.
Zidianakis, G., Mohr, B.A.R., Fassoulas, C., 2007. A Late Miocene leaf assemblage from Vrysses, western Crete, Greece, and its paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic interpretation. Geodiversitas 29(3), 351–377.
Zidianakis, G., Iliopoulos, G., Fassoulas, C., 2010. A new late Miocene plant assemblage from Messara Basin (Crete, Greece). Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece 63, 781–792.
Zidianakis, G., Iliopoulos, G., Zelilidis, A., Kovar-Eder, J., 2015. Myrica from the plant assemblage of Pitsidia (Crete, Late Miocene): putting the puzzle together. Palaeontographica B 293, 149–171.
Zidianakis, G., Iliopoulos, G., Zelilidis, A., Kovar-Eder, J., 2016. Pinus remains from the Pitsidia plant assemblage document costal pine forests in southern Crete during the Late Miocene. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 235, 11–30.
Zidianakis, G., Iliopoulos, G., Zelilidis, A., Kovar-Eder, J., 2020. Evidences of plant-arthropod interaction in the fossil assemblage from Pitsidia (Messara Basin, Crete, Greece, Upper Miocene). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie 295(2), 1–15.