The Miocene Red Lake macroflora of the Deadman River Formation (Chilcotin Group), Interior Plateau, British Columbia, Canada
More details
Hide details
Department of Biology, Brandon University, 270-18th Street, Brandon, Manitoba, R7A 6A9, Canada
Department of Geological Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, 114 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5E2, Canada
Online publication date: 2020-11-27
Publication date: 2020-12-30
Acta Palaeobotanica 2020; 60(2): 213-250
Despite early interest in Neogene floras, primarily Miocene sites associated with Mio–Pliocene volcanic deposits of the Interior Plateau of British Columbia, few systematic accounts of the Miocene macrofloras of British Columbia – or elsewhere in non-Arctic Canada – have been published since the pioneering studies of J.W. Dawson and his contemporaries in the late 19th century. In this report, the Red Lake macroflora from sediments of the middle Miocene Deadman River Formation exposed in the Red Lake diatomite mine north of Kamloops, British Columbia, is illustrated, and a preliminary assessment presented, along with a brief review of Miocene floras from British Columbia and the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The Red Lake macroflora contains rare Ginkgo leaves, shoots of Cupressaceae (Cupressinocladus, Metasequoia, Taxodium) and shoots and seeds of Pinaceae (Pseudotsuga, Tsuga), maple (Acer) seeds and leaves, Liquidambar (fruit), Trochodendraceae (Zizyphoides auriculata leaves, Nordenskioeldia interglacialis fruits), leaves of 4 species of red and white oaks (Quercus columbiana, Q. prelobata, Q. pseudolyrata, Quercus sp.), leaves of an alder (Alnus harneyana) and birch (Betula thor), chestnut (Castanea spokanensis), beech (Fagus pacifica), sycamore (Platanus dissecta), elm (Ulmus speciosa), leaves of unidentified taxa, fruits of Tilia pedunculata (Malvaceae) and fruits and inflorescences of other unidentified taxa, and leaves of a reed or rush (indet. monocot). The Red Lake middle Miocene climate reconstructed from leaf physiognomy was temperate and mesic, with mean annual temperature ~11–13°C, mild winters (coldest month mean temperature ~3°C), mean annual precipitation 170 −51/+73 cm/yr, and growing season precipitation ~92 cm, with moderate seasonality of precipitation (three wettest months ~51 cm vs. three driest months ~25 cm). The Red Lake flora shows similarities to middle to late Miocene floras from the U.S. Pacific Northwest (i.e., richness in oaks) but is of much lower diversity and lacks key elements common to many of the contemporaneous U.S. Miocene floras (e.g., foliage of Pinaceae esp. Pinus), and is missing taxa detected in the microflora, a pattern likely due to sampling effectiveness at the Red Lake Mine and sampling of different lithofacies for macro- and microfloras.
APG IV [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group IV], 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181(1), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1111/boj.12....
Axelrod, D.I., 1964. The Miocene Trapper Creek flora of southern Idaho. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences 51, 1–161.
Axelrod, D.I., Arroyo, M.K., Raven, P.H., 1991. Historical development of temperate vegetation in the Americas. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 64, 413–446.
Aylen, P.B., Simandl, G.J., Simandl, J., 2004. Leonardite at Red Lake deposit, British Columbia, Canada. In: George J. Simandl, G.J., William J. McMillan, W.J., Nicole Robinson, N. (eds), Industrial Minerals with emphasis on Western North America. British Columbia Ministry of Energy Mines and Petroleum Resources, Paper 2004-2, pp. 239–242.
Barrón, E., Averyanova, A., Kvaček, Z., Momohara, A., Pigg, K.B., Popova, S., Postigo-Mijarra, J.M., Tiffney, B.H., Utescher, T., Zhou, Z.K., 2017. The fossil history of Quercus. In: Gil-Pelegrín, E., Peguero- Pina, J.J., Sancho-Knapik, D. (eds), Oaks physiological ecology. Exploring the functional diversity of genus Quercus L. Springer, Chambridge, pp. 39–105. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-....
Baghai, N.L., Jorstad, R.B., 1995. Paleontology, paleoclimatology and paleoecology of the late middle Miocene Musselshell Creek flora, Clearwater County, Idaho; a preliminary study of a new fossil flora. Palaios 10(5), 424–436. https://doi.org/10.2307/351504....
Baskin, J.M., Baskin, C.C., 2016. Origins and relationships of the Mixed Mesophytic Forest of Oregon– Idaho, China, and Kentucky: Review and synthesis. Annnals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 101(3), 525–552. https://doi.org/10.3417/201401....
Bell, W.A., 1962. Catalogue of types and figured specimens of fossil plants in the Geological Survey of Canada collections. Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa. https://doi.org/10.4095/4681.
Berry, E.W., 1929. The age of the St. Eugene silt in the Kootenay Valley, British Columbia. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, 3d Series, 23(sec. 4), 4748.
Berry, E.W., 1931. A Miocene flora from Grand Coulee, Washington. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 170-C, 31–42. https://doi.org/10.3133/pp170c.
Berry, E.W., 1934. Miocene plants from Idaho. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 185-E, 97–125.
Bevier, M.L., 1983. Regional stratigraphy and age of Chilcotin Group basalts, south-central British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 20(4), 515–524. https://doi.org/10.1139/e83-04....
Bolton, T.E., 1994. Catalogue of types and figured specimens of fossil plants in the Geological Survey of Canada collections (Vol. 2). Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa. https://doi.org/10.4095/194039.
Borgardt, S.J., Pigg, K.B., 1999. Anatomical and developmental study of petrified Quercus (Fagaceae) fruits from the Middle Miocene, Yakima Canyon, Washington, USA. American Journal of Botany 86(3), 307–325. https://doi.org/10.2307/265675....
Buechler, W.K., Dunn, M.T., Rember, W.C., 2007. Late Miocene Pickett Creek Flora of Owyhee County, Idaho. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, The University of Michigan 31(12), 305–362.
Champigny, N., Henderson, C.M., Rouse, G.E., 1981. New evidence for the age of the Skonun Formation, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 18(12), 1900–1903. https://doi.org/10.1139/e81-17....
Chaney, R.W., 1927. Geology and paleontology of the Crooked River Basin, with special reference to the Bridge Creek flora. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication 346, 45–138.
Chaney, R.W., 1959. Miocene floras of the Columbia Plateau, Part I: Composition and interpretation. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication 617, 1–134.
Chaney, R.W., Axelrod, D.I., 1959. Miocene Floras of the Columbia Plateau, Part II: Systematic considerations. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication 617, 135–224, 44 plates.
Christenhusz, M.J., Reveal, J.L., Farjon, A., Gardner, M.F., Mill, R.R., Chase, M.W., 2011. A new classification and linear sequence of extant gymnosperms. Phytotaxa 19(1), 55–70. https://doi.org/10.11646/phyto....
Clague, J.J., 1974. The St. Eugene Formation and the development of the southern Rocky Mountain Trench. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 11(7), 916–938. https://doi.org/10.1139/e74-09....
Crane, P.R., Stockey, R.A., 1987. Betula leaves and reproductive structures from the Middle Eocene of British Columbia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany 65, 2490–2500. https://doi.org/10.1139/b87-33....
Crane, P.R., Manchester, S.R., Dilcher, D.L., 1991. Reproductive and vegetative structure of Nordenskioldia (Trochodendraceae), a vesselless dicotyledon from the early Tertiary of the Northern Hemisphere. American Journal of Botany 78(10), 1311–1334. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1537....
Cross, A.T., Taggart, R.E., 1982. Causes of short-term sequential changes in fossil plant assemblages: some considerations based on a Miocene flora of the northwest United States. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 69(3), 676–734. https://doi.org/10.2307/239908....
Dawson, G.M., 1895. Report on the area of the Kamloops map sheet, British Columbia. Geological Survey of Canada, Annual Report 7, Part B. https://doi.org/10.4095/297159.
Dawson, J.W., 1883. On the Cretaceous and Tertiary floras of British Columbia and the Northwest Territory. Procedings and Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, Series 1, Volume 1, Section IV, 15–34, with 8 plates.
Dillhoff, R.M., Dillhoff, T.A., Jijina, A.P., Strömberg, C.A.E., 2014. The Vasa Park flora, King County, Washington, USA: A window into the Late Miocene of the Pacific Northwest. In: Stevens, W.D., Montiel, O.M., Raven, P.H. (eds), Paleobotany and biogeography: A festschrift for Alan Graham in his 80th year. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Chapter 5, pp. 64–97.
Dostal, J., Hamilton, T.S., Church, B.N., 1996. The Chilcotin basalts, British Columbia (Canada): geochemistry, petrogenesis and tectonic significance. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie – Abhandlungen 170(2), 207–229.
Eberle, J.J., Greenwood, D.R., 2017. An Eocene brontothere and tillodonts (Mammalia) from British Columbia, and their paleoenvironments. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 54(9), 981–992. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjes-2....
Ellis, B., Daly, D.C., Hickey, L.J., Mitchell, J.V., Johnson, K.R., Wilf, P., Wing, S.L., 2009. Manual of leaf architecture. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.
Environment and Climate Change Canada, 2018. Canadian Climate Normals; 1971-2000 Climate Normals & Averages. https://climate.weather.gc.ca/... [accessed 9 December 2018].
Graham, A., 1963. Systematic revision of the Sucker Creek and Trout Creek Miocene floras of southeastern Oregon. American Journal of Botany 50(9), 921–936. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1537....
Graham, A., 1993. History of the vegetation: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) – Tertiary. Flora of North America 1, 57–70.
Graham, A., 1999. Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic History of North American Vegetation. Oxford University Press, New York.
Greenwood, D.R., 2007. Fossil angiosperm leaves and climate: from Wolfe and Dilcher to Burnham and Wilf. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 258, 95–108.
Greenwood, D.R., Pigg, K.B., Basinger, J.F., Devore, M.L., 2016. A review of paleobotanical studies of the Early Eocene Okanagan (Okanogan) Highlands floras of British Columbia, Canada and Washington, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 53(6), 548–564. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjes-2....
Gurney, S., 2016. Red Lake bulk sample site #534172. British Columbia Geological Survey Assessment Report 35982.
Harris, E.B., Strömberg, C.A., Sheldon, N.D., Smith, S.Y., Vilhena, D.A., 2017. Vegetation response during the lead-up to the middle Miocene warming event in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 485, 401–415. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pala....
Henrot, A.J., Utescher, T., Erdei, B., Dury, M., Hamon, N., Ramstein, G., Krapp, M., Herold, N., Goldner, A., Favre, E., Munhoven, G., 2017. Middle Miocene climate and vegetation models and their validation with proxy data. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 467, 95–119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pala....
Hickey, L.J., Johnson, K.R., Dawson, M.R., 1988. The stratigraphy, sedimentology, and fossils of the Haughton Formation: A post-impact crater-fill, Devon Island, NWT, Canada. Meteoritics 23(3), 221–231. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1945....
Hills, L.V., Ogilvie, R.T., 1970. Picea banksii n. sp. Beaufort Formation (Tertiary), northwestern Banks Island, Arctic Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany 48, 457–464. https://doi.org/10.1139/b70-06....
Hills, L.V., Klovan, J.E., Sweet, A.R., 1974. Juglans eocinerea n. sp., Beaufort Formation (Tertiary), southwestern Banks Island. Canadian Journal of Botany 52, 65–90. https://doi.org/10.1139/b74-01....
Hollick, A., 1927. The flora of the Saint Eugene silts, Kootenay Valley, British Columbia. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 7, 389–465.
Hopkins, Jr, W.S., 1968. Subsurface Miocene rocks, British Columbia-Washington, A palynological investigation. Geological Society of America Bulletin 79(6), 763–768. https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7....
Huegele, I.B., Spielbauer, R.J., Manchester, S.R., 2020. Morphology and systematic affinities of Platanus dissecta Lesquereux (Platanaceae) from the Miocene of western North America. International Journal of Plant Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1086/706453.
Ickert-Bond, S.M., Pigg, K.B., Wen, J., 2005. Comparative infructescence morphology in Liquidambar (Altingiaceae) and its evolutionary significance. American Journal of Botany 92(8), 1234–1255. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.92....
Kasbohm, J., Schoene, B., 2018. Rapid eruption of the Columbia River flood basalt and correlation with the mid-Miocene climate optimum. Sciences Advances 4(9), eaat8223, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv....
Knowlton, F.H., 1902. Fossil flora of the John Day Basin Oregon. United States Geological Survey, Bulletin 204, 1–174. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.ti....
Kowalski, E.A., Dilcher, D.L., 2003. Warmer paleotemperatures for terrestrial ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100(1), 167–170. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2....
Kvaček, J., 2015. Elatocladus velenovskyi nom. nov., a characteristic conifer of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin. Palaeontographica Abteilung B 292(1-3), 79–93. https://doi.org/10.1127/palb/2....
Lott, T.A., Manchester, S.R., Corbett, S.L., 2019. The Miocene flora of Alum Bluff, Liberty County, Florida. Acta Palaeobotanica 59(1), 75–129. https://doi.org/10.2478/acpa-2....
Manchester, S.R., 1994. Inflorescence bracts of fossil and extant Tilia in North America, Europe, and Asia: Patterns of morphologic divergence and biogeographic history. American Journal of Botany 81(9), 1176–1185. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1537....
Manchester, S., Rember, W., 2014. Taxonomic composition of the Middle Miocene Clarkia flora of northern Idaho. Abstract C2006-607 in, The Miocene vegetation and environment of Western North America. Botanical Society of America Annual Meeting. Boise, Idaho. July 29, 2014. http:// www.botanyconference.org/engine/search/index. php?func=detail&aid=607 [accessed Apr. 25, 2020].
Manchester, S.R., Crane, P.R., Dilcher, D.L., 1991. Nordenskioldia and Trochodendron (Trochodendraceae) from the Miocene of northwestern North America. Botanical Gazette 152(3), 357–368. https://doi.org/10.1086/337898.
Manchester, S.R., Pigg, K.B., Devore, M.L., 2018. Trochodendraceous fruits and foliage in the Miocene of Western North America. Fossil Imprint 74(1, 2), 45–54. https://doi.org/10.2478/if-201....
Martin, H.A., Rouse, G.E., 1966. Palynology of late Tertiary sediments from Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Botany 44, 171–208. https://doi.org/10.1139/b66-02....
Matthews Jr, J.V., Ovenden, L.E., 1990. Late Tertiary plant macrofossils from localities in Arctic/Subarctic North America: a review of the data. Arctic 43(4), 364–392. https://doi.org/10.14430/arcti....
Mathews, W.H., 1989. Neogene Chilcotin basalts in south-central British Columbia: Geology, ages, and geomorphic history. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 26, 969–982. https://doi.org/10.1139/e89-07....
Mathews, W.H., Rouse, G.E., 1963. Late Tertiary volcanic rocks and plant-bearing deposits in British Columbia. Geological Society of America Bulletin 74(1), 55–60. https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7....
Mathews, W.H., Rouse, G.E., 1984. The Gang Ranch– Big Bar area, south-central British Columbia: stratigraphy, geochronology, and palynology of Tertiary beds and their relationship to the Fraser Fault. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 21, 1132–1144. https://doi.org/10.1139/e84-11....
McIver, E.E., Basinger, J.F., 1999. Early Tertiary floral evolution in the Canadian High Arctic. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 86(2), 523–545. https://doi.org/10.2307/266618....
Mustoe, G.E., Leopold, E.B., 2014. Paleobotanical evidence for the post-Miocene uplift of the Cascade Range. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 51, 809–824. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjes-2....
Penhallow, D.P., 1908. A report on Tertiary plants of British Columbia, collected by Lawrence M. Lambe in 1906 together with a discussion of previously recorded Tertiary floras. Canada Department of Mines, Geological Survey Branch, No. 1013, 1–167. https://doi.org/10.4095/106549.
Peppe, D.J., Royer, D.L., Cariglino, B., Oliver, S.Y., Newman, S., Leight, E., Enikolopov, G., Fernandez- Burgos,M., Herrera, F., Adams, J.M., Correa, E., Currano, E.D., Erickson, J.M., Hinojosa, L.F., Hoganson, J.W., Iglesias, A., Jaramillo, C.A., Johnson, K.R., Jordan, G.J., Kraft, N.J.B., Lovelock, E.C., Lusk, C.H., Niinemets, Ü., Peñuelas, J., Rapson, G., Wing, S.L., Wright, I.J., 2011. Sensitivity of leaf size and shape to climate: global patterns and paleoclimatic applications. New Phytolologist 190, 724–739. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469....
Pigg, K.B., Ickert-Bond, S.M., Wen, J., 2004. Anatomically preserved Liquidambar (Altingiaceae) from the middle Miocene of Yakima Canyon, Washington state, USA, and its biogeographic implications. American Journal of Botany 91(3), 499–509. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.91....
Pigott, D., 2006. 550. Tilia endochrysea: Tiliaceae. Curtis’s Botanical Magazine 23(1), 56–61. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1355....
Pinson, J.B., Manchester, S.R., Sessa, E.B., 2018. Culcita remberi sp. nov., an understory fern of Cyatheales from the Miocene of Northern Idaho. International Journal of Plant Sciences 179(8), 635–639. https://doi.org/10.1086/698938.
Potter, P.E., Szatmari, P., 2009. Global Miocene tectonics and the modern world. Earth-Science Reviews 96(4), 279–295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ears....
Pound, M.J., Haywood, A.M., Salzmann, U., Riding, J.B., Lunt, D.J., Hunter, S.J., 2011. A Tortonian (late Miocene, 11.61–7.25 Ma) global vegetation reconstruction. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 300(1–4), 29–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pala....
Prader, S., Kotthoff, U., McCarthy, F.M.G., Schmiedl, G., Donders, T.H., Greenwood, D.R., 2017. Vegetation and climate development of the New Jersey Hinterland during the late Middle Miocene Vegetation and climate development of the New Jersey hinterland during the late Middle Miocene (IODP Expedition 313 Site M0027). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 485, 854–868. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pala....
Prader, S., Kotthoff, U., Greenwood, D.R., McCarthy, F.M.G., Schmiedl, G., Donders, T.H., 2020. New Jersey’s paleoflora and eastern North American climate through Paleogene–Neogene warm phases. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 279, 104224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revp....
Read, P.B., 1989. Tertiary stratigraphy and industrial minerals, Bonaparte to Deadman Rivers (NTS 92P/2, 3). British Columbia Geological Survey, British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Open File 1989-21.
Read, P.B., 1992. Miocene stratigraphy and industrial minerals, Bonaparte to Deadman River area, southern British Columbia (92I/14, 15; 92P/2,3). British Columbia Geological Survey, British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Geological Fieldwork, 1988, Paper 1989-1.
Read, P.B., 1996. Geology, Red Lake open pit, Kamloops Mining Division (92I/15w/2). British Columbia Geological Survey, British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Assessment Report 25358, pp. 23, 4 leaves.
Read, P.B., 2000. Geology of the Arrowstone Hills: 5–16, Ch. 4. In: Read, P.B. (ed.), Geology and industrial minerals of the Tertiary basins, south-central British Columbia. British Columbia Geological Survey, British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines, GeoFile 2000-3. Available from https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/con... [last accessed 01 August 2020].
Reiners, P.W., Ehlers, T.A., Garver, J.I., Mitchell, S.G., Montogmery, D.R., Vance, J.A., Nicolescu, S., 2002. Late Miocene exhumation and uplift of the Washington Cascade Range. Geology 30(9), 767–770. https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7...<0767:lmeauo>2.0.co;2.
Retallack, G.J., 2004. Late Miocene climate and life on land in Oregon within a context of Neogene global change. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimology, Palaeoecology 214(1,2), 97–123. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0031-....
Retallack, G.J., 2007. Cenozoic paleoclimate on land in North America. Journal of Geology 115(3), 271–294. https://doi.org/10.1086/512753.
Retallack, G.J., Tanaka, S., Tate, T., 2002. Late Miocene advent of tall grassland paleosols in Oregon. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 183(3,4), 329–354. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0031-....
Rouse, G.E., Mathews, W.H., 1979. Tertiary geology and palynology of the Quesnel Area, British Columbia. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology 27(4), 418–445.
Robichaux, R.H., Taylor, D.W., 1977. Vegetation-analysis techniques applied to late Tertiary fossil floras from the Western United States. Journal of Ecology 65(2), 643–660. https://doi.org/10.2307/225950....
Scott, R.A., Barghoorn, E.S., Prakash, U., 1962. Wood of Ginkgo in the Tertiary of western North America. American Journal of Botany 49(10), 1095–1101. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1537....
Simandl, G.J., Simandl, J., Aylen, P.B., 2001. Leonardite- type material at Red Lake Diatomite Deposit, Kamloops Area, British Columbia. British Columbia Geological Survey, British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines, Geological Fieldwork 2000, Paper 2000-1 pp. 371–378.
Smiley, C.J., Gray, J., Huggins, L.M., 1975. Preservation of Miocene fossils in unoxidized lake deposits, Clarkia, Idaho. Journal of Paleontology 49(5), 833–844.
Smith, H.V., 1941. A Miocene Flora from Thorn Creek, Idaho. American Midland Naturalist 25(3), 473–522. https://doi.org/10.2307/242071....
Smith, M., Manchester, S.R., 2019. A new species of “gigantic” capsular fruits of Vaccinioideae from the Miocene of Idaho. Palaeontologia Electronica 22.3.65, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.26879/982.
Strömberg, C.A.E., 2005. Decoupled taxonomic radiation and ecological expansion of open-habitat grasses in the Cenozoic of North America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102(34), 11980–11984. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0....
Takeuchi, A., Larson, P.B., Suzuki, K., 2007. Influence of paleorelief on the mid-Miocene climate variation in southeastern Washington, northeastern Oregon, and western Idaho, USA. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 254(3,4), 462–476. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pala....
Tanai, T., Wolfe, J.A., 1977. Revisions of Ulmus and Zelkova in the middle and late Tertiary of western North America. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 1026, 1–14, 4 plates. https://doi.org/10.3133/pp1026.
The Imaging Source, 2015. IC Measure, manual onscreen image measurement and image acquisition. Website: http://www.theimagingsource.co... [accessed 20 March 2016].
Wang, Y.H., Ferguson, D.K., Feng, G.P., Wang, Y.F., Zhilin, S.G., Li, C.S., Svetlana, P.T., Yang, J., Ablaev, A.G., 2009. The phytogeography of the extinct angiosperm Nordenskioeldia (Trochodendraceae) and its response to climate changes. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 280 (1,2), 183–192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pala....
West, C.K., Greenwood, D.R., Basinger, J.F., 2019. The late Paleocene to early Eocene Arctic megaflora of Ellesmere islands, Nunavut, Canada. Palaeontographica Abt. B 300 (1–6), 47–163. https://doi.org/10.1127/palb/2....
Wheeler, E.A., Dillhoff, T.A., 2009. The middle Miocene wood flora of Vantage, Washington, USA. IAWA Journal, Supplement 7, 1–101.
White, J.M., Ager T.A., Adam, D.P., Leopold, E.B., Liu, G., Jetté H., Schweger, C.E., 1997. An 18 million year record of vegetation and climate change in northwestern Canada and Alaska: tectonic and global climatic correlates. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecoogy 130, 293–306. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0031-....
Whitlock, C., Dawson, M.R., 1990. Pollen and vertebrates of the early Neogene Haughton Formation, Devon Island, Arctic Canada. Arctic 43(4), 324–330. https://doi.org/10.14430/arcti....
Wilf, P., Wing, S.L., Greenwood, D.R., Greenwood, C.L., 1998. Using fossil leaves as paleoprecipitation indicators: An Eocene example. Geology 26, 203–208. https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7...<0203:uflapi>2.3.co;2.
New Observations on the Last Pterocarya (Juglandaceae) Occurrences in Eastern North America
Debra Stults, Bruce Tiffney, Brian Axsmith
International Journal of Plant Sciences
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top