Settlements and cemeteries in Bronze Age Croatia: The archaeobotanical evidence
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Oxford Martin School, University of Oxford, 34 Broad Street, Oxford, OX1 3BD, UK
Arheološki Muzej, Osijek, Croatia
Gradski Muzej, Nova Gradiška, Croatia
Archaeological Museum, Zagreb, Croatia
Online publication date: 2022-12-16
Publication date: 2022-12-16
Acta Palaeobotanica 2022; 62(2): 108–122
  • Archaeobotanical data from ten Bronze Age sites from Croatia are presented
  • Broomcorn millet, barley, free-threshing wheat, broad bean, and lentil dominate
  • Evidence shows adoption of millet occurred by the middle Bronze Age in Croatia
The Bronze Age in Europe is a dynamic time characterised by an increase in long-distance mobility and interaction, changes in social organisation, technological advancements and evolving agricultural practices. In particular, we see an increase in the range of crops grown from the middle Bronze Age, including the introduction of new crops, such as broomcorn millet and broad bean. However, evidence of agricultural practices in Croatia is limited. This paper presents new archaeobotanical data collected from ten Bronze Age settlements and cemeteries in continental Croatia. Overall, the density of plant remains was low and consisted of either cereal grains or wild taxa, with the majority coming from Mačkovac-Crišnjevi. Oats (Avena sp.) and broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum) are the most dominant cereals, followed by small numbers of barley (Hordeum vulgare), emmer (Triticum dicoccum) and free-threshing wheat (Triticum aestivum/durum). The composition of the botanical remains are comparable to neighbouring regions, although the occurrence of millet and especially oats are not seen in any significance until the Iron Age.
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