Graphic correlation and paleoenvironmental investigation of the upper Eocene–lower Oligocene sediments in the Dahomey Basin, southwestern Nigeria: insights from palynomorphs.
More details
Hide details
Natural History Museum, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Department of Biological Sciences, Redeemer’s University, P.M.B. 230, Ede, Nigeria
Department of Geological Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria
Online publication date: 2022-12-30
Publication date: 2022-12-30
Acta Palaeobotanica 2022; 62(2): 162-181
  • • Two broad palynological assemblage zones were delineated.
  • • Fluvio-deltaic/near-shore to marginal marine paleoenvironments were reconstructed.
  • • One meter of sediment accumulation in Epe-1 equivalent to 44-69 % less of rock deposited in other three
  • boreholes.
  • • Four biostratigraphic events were correlated in the four studied boreholes
This study presents the results of a comprehensive qualitative and quantitative palynological analysis of four shallow boreholes (Epe-1, Olokonla-1, Ikoyi-1 and Badore-1) in the lower Eocene–upper Oligocene periods of the Dahomey Basin, southwestern Nigeria. The lithostratigraphic analysis revealed three lithologies (sandy-shales, shaly-sands and sandstones). Two most important palynological zones, the Verrucatosporites usmensis, as well as the Magnastriatites howardi Pan-tropical zones, are delineated. First Appearance Datum (FAD) of Achomosphaera alcicornu marked the late Eocene–early Oligocene boundaries (E/O) within the four boreholes, while FAD of Adnatosphaeridium multispinosum defined the late Eocene–early Oligocene boundary (E/O) in Ikoy-1. Two informal palynological assemblage zones were revealed in the four boreholes. Common occurrences of palms, mangrove, fresh water and brackish water pollen, and pteridophyte spores with spots records of marine elements and algae species during marine invasion suggested fluctuation from fluvio-deltaic/nearshore to marginal marine paleoenvironments. Graphic correlation discloses that for every meter of sedimentary rock accretion within Epe-1, equally amounted to merely 0.31 m, 0.56 m, as well as 0.47 m of sediments, which were put down in Olokonla-1, Ikoyi-1, as well as Badore-1, respectively. These comparative rates of sedimentary rock accretion show with the purpose of either there is fewer attrition occurrence and/or extra accommodation gap within Epe-1 than Olokonla-1, Ikoyi-1, as well as Badore-1. The assessment of the slopes, intercept and correlation equations through graphic correlation procedures enable the identification of four biostratigraphic events in Epe-1, Olokonla-1, Ikoyi-1, as well as Badore-1. The findings in this investigation are necessary for depositional succession and paleoenvironmental understandings, as well as basin investigation, and above all, to show a relationship of broadly separated boreholes.
Adeigbe, O.C., Ola-Buraimo, A.O., Moronhunkola, A.O., 2013. Palynological Characterization of the Tertiary Offshore Emi-1 Well, Dahomey Basin, Southwestern Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research 2, 58–70. http://www.ijstr.or.
Adeniran, O.A., 2015. Upper Cretaceous to paleogene palynosequence stratigraphy of H-1 welloffshore Eastern Dahomey Basin, Southwestern Nigeria. International Journal of Research and Innovations in Earth Science 2(3), 2394–1375.
Adojoh, O., Marret, F., Duller, R., Osterloff, P., 2017. Tropical palaeovegetation dynamics, environmental and climate change impact from the low latitude Coastal Offshore Margin, Niger Delta, Gulf of Guinea. In: Runge, J. (ed.), The African Neogene – Climate, Environments and People. Palaeoecolgy of Africa, pp. 1–38.
Adojoh, O., Fabienne, M., Duller, R., Osterloff, P., 2019. Taxonomy and phytoecology of palynomorphs and non-pollen palynomorphs: a refined compendium from the West Africa Margin. Biodiversity International Journal 3(5), 188–200. https://doi.org/10.15406/bij.2....
Al-Areeq, N.M., Albaroot, M., 2019. Source rocks evaluation and thermal maturity evolution of the Dhamar Ali Field, Sab’atayn Basin, Yemen. Asian Journal of Science and Technology 10(1), 9364–9374.
Aniefiok, E.I., Usenobong, F.U., Margaret, U.I., Idongesit, O.I., Udo, J.I., 2016. Petroleum Industry in Nigeria: Envi-ronmental Issues, National Environmental Legislation and Implementation of International Environmental Law. American Journal of Environmental Protection 4(1), 21–37. https://doi.org/10.12691/env-4....
Anstey, R.L., Rabbio, S.F., 1989. Regional bryozoan biostratigraphy and taphonomy of the Edenian Stratotype (Kope Formation, Cincinnati Area): graphic correlation and gradient analysis. Palaios 4, 574–584. https://doi.org/10.2307/351474....
Asadu, A.N., Nkem, J.F., 2020. Palynostratigraphy of Well Z., OPL 310, Offshore Dahomey Basin, South-Western Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Applied Geology and Geophysics 8(2), 51–61.
Atta-Peters, C.I., Agama, D.K., Asiedu, E.A., 2013. Palynology, palynofacies and palaeoenvironments of sedimen-tary organic matter from Bonyere-1 Well, Tano basin, western Ghana. International Letters of Natural Sciences 5, 27–45.
Awad, W.K., Oboh-Ikuenobe, F.E., 2019. Paleogene-early Neogene paleoenvironmental reconstruction based on palynological analysis of ODP Hole 959A, West Africa. Marine Micropaleontology 148, 29–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marm....
Babalola, O.O., 1988. Tectonic Evolution and Hydrocarbon Prospectivity of Nigerian Frontier Grabens of Dahomey Basin from Interpretation of New Aeromagnetic and Existing Seismic and Geophysical Data. AAPG Search and Discovery Article #91030©1988 AAPG Annual Convention, Houston, Texas, 20–23 March 1988. https://www.searchanddiscovery.... Cited on June 07 2022.
Bankole, S.I., Shrank, E., Erdtmann, B.D., Akande, S.O., 2006. Palynostratigraphic age and paleoenvironments of the newly exposed section of the Oshosun Formation in the Sagamu quarry, Dahomey Basin, Southwestern, Nigeria. Nigerian Association of Petroleum Explorationists Bulletin 19, 25–34.
Bankole, S.I., Schrank, E., Adeonipekun, P., 2016. Paleoecology of the Neogene Agbada Formation, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Ife Journal of Science Special Edition 18, 845–859.
Belka, Z., Kaufmann, B., Bultynck, P., 1997. Conodont-based quantitative biostratigraphy for the Eifelian of the eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco. Geological Society of America Bulletin 109(6), 643–651.
Berggren, W.A., Prothero, D.R., 1992. Eocene-Oligocene climatic and biotic evolution: An overview. In: Berggren, W.A., Prothero, D.R. (eds), Eocene-Oligocene Climatic and Biotic Evolution, pp. 1–28. Princeton University Press. http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.....
Billman, H.G., 1976. Offshore stratigraphy and paleontology of the Dahomey embayment. Proceedings of the 7th African Micropaleontological Colloquium, March 16–28, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
Bolaji, T.A., Ndukwe, O.S., Oyebamiji, A.R., Ikegwuonu, O.N., 2020. Palynological Age Control and Paleoenviron-ments of the Paleogene Strata in Eastern Dahomey Basin, Southwestern Nigeria. Science Reports 10, 8991. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598....
Brownfield, M.E., Charpentier, R.R., 2006. Geology and total petroleum systems of the Gulf of Guinea Province of West Africa. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2207-C, pp. 1–32.
Burroughs, W.J., 2001. Climate Change: A multidisciplinary approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University press.
Burroughs, W.J., 2007. Climate Change: A multidisciplinary approach. Cambridge: Cambridge university press.
Catuneanu, O., 2002. Sequence stratigraphy of clastic systems: concepts, merits, and pitfalls, Journal of African Earth Sciences 35(1), 1–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0899-....
Chukwuma-Orji, J.N., Okosun, E.A., Goro, I.A., Waziri, S.H., 2017. Palynofacies, sedimentology and palaeoenvi-ronment evidenced by studies on IDA-6 well, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Palaeoecology of Africa 34, 87–105.
Coe, A., Bosence, D., Church, K., Flint, S., Howell, J., Wilson, Ch., 2002. The Sedimentary Record of Sea Level Change. Cambridge University Press, 288 pp.
Cronin, T.N., 2010. Paleoclimates: understanding climate change past and present. New York: Columbia University Press.
Descalzi, C., 2015. World Oil and Gas Review. https://www.eni.com/assets/doc....
Dim, C.I.P., Mode, A.W., Okwara, I.C., 2018. Signatures of key petroleum system elements: outcrop examples from the Anambra Basin. Southeastern Nigeria. Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13202....
Dockery, D.T., 1986. Punctuated succession of Paleogene mollusks in the Northern Gulf Coastal Plain. Palaios 1, 582–589. https://doi.org/10.2307/351470....
Dowsett, H.J., 1989. Application of the graphic correlation method to Pliocene marine sequences. Marine Micro-paleontology 14(1–3), 3–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8....
Durugbo, E.U., Olayiwola, M.A., 2017. Palynological dating and palaeoenvironments of the M1 well, Middle Mio-cene, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Palaeontologia Africana 52, 46–57.
Edwards, L.E., 1984. Insight s on why graphic correlation (Shaw’s method) work. The Journal of Geology 92, 583–597.
Edwards, L.E., 1989. Supplemented graphic correlation: a powerful tool for paleontologists and non-paleontologists. Palaios 4(2), 127–143. https://doi.org/10.2307/351460....
El Atfy, H., El Diasty, W.S., El Beialy, S.Y., Gheith, A.M., Batten, D.J., Agha, N.N., 2017. Palynofacies and geo-chemical analyses of the Upper Cretaceous–Eocene succession, western Sirte Basin, Libya: Palaeoenvironmental interpretation and implications for hydrocarbon generation potential. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 157, 148–163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petr....
El Atfy, H., El Beialy, S.Y., El Khoriby, E.M., Uhl, D., 2021. Continental palynomorphs from the Dabaa Formation, North-Western Desert, Egypt: a contribution to the reconstruction of the vegetation on the southern shores of the Tethys Ocean during the Early Oligocene. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 197, 291–321. https://doi.org/10.1093/botlin....
El Atfy, H., El Beialy, S.Y., Zobaa, M.K., Tahaa, A.A., Uhl, D., 2022. A snapshot into the Oligocene vegetation of the Tethyan southern shores: new fossil pollen evidence from North Africa (Egypt). Palynology 46(3), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/019161....
El Beialy, S.Y., 1988. Palynostratigraphy of late Tertiary sediments of Kafr El Dawar well no. 1, Nile Delta, Egypt. Revue de Micropaléontologie 30, 249–260.
El Beialy, S.Y., Head, M.J., El Atfy, H., El Khoriby, E.M., 2019. Dinoflagellate cyst evidence for the age and palaeo-environments of the Upper Eocene–Oligocene Dabaa Formation, Qattara Depression, north Western Desert, Egypt. Palynology 43, 268–291. https://doi.org/10.1080/019161....
Evamy, B.D., Haremboure, J., Kamerling, P., Knapp, W.A., Molloy, F.A., Rowlands, P.H., 1978. Hydrocarbon habitat of the Tertiary Niger delta. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 62, 1–39.
Fadiya, S.L., Jaiyeola-Ganiyu, F.A., Fajemila, O.T., 2014. Foraminifera biostratigraphy and paleoenvironment of sediments from Well AM-2, Niger Delta. Ife Journal of Science 16(1), 61–72.
Fajemila, O.T., 2012. Foraminifera Biostratigraphy and Paleoenvironmental Studies of Two Wells from Offshore Western Niger Delta. Ife Journal of Science 14(2), 369–384.
Fajemila, O.T., Olayiwola, M.A., Durugbo, E.U., 2022. Palynostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental analysis of late Miocene-early Pliocene sediments from ML-1 well, Offshore Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria. Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 304(2), 205–220. https://doi.org/10.1127/njgpa/....
Faegri, K., Iversen, J., Kaland, P.E., Krzywinski, K., 1989. Textbook of pollen analysis (4th ed.). John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, pp. 1–328.
Fozao, K.F., Djieto-Lordon, A.E., Ali, E.A.A., Agying, C.M., Ndeh, D.M., Zebaze, D.M.K., 2019. Analysis of shaly sand reservoir rocks in the eastern Niger Delta Basin using geophysical well logs. Journal of Petroleum and Gas Engineering 10(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.5897/JPGE20....
Frederiksen, N.O., 1988. Sporomorph biostratigraphy, floral changes, and palaeoclimatology, Eocene and Earliest Oligocene of the Eastern Gulf Coast. U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1448, 1–68.
Germeraad, J.H., Hopping, C.A., Muller, J., 1968. Palynology of Tertiary sediments from tropical areas. Review of Palynology and Paleobotany 6, 189–348. https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-6....
Gough, A., Hall, R., 2017. Oligocene Fluvio-Deltaic Depositional Environments Salin Sub-Basin, Central Myanmar. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2017, abstract #EP21F-1904. https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/....
Gouwy, S., Bultynck, P., 2000. Graphic correlation of Frasnian sections (upper Devonian) in the ardennes, Belgium. Bulletin De l’Institut Royal Des Sciences Naturelles De Belgique, Sciences De La Terre 70, 25–52.
Guerstein, G.R., González, E.M., Sol Alperín, M.I., Casadío, S.A., Archangelsky, S., 2014. Correlation and paleoen-vironments of middle Paleogene marine beds based on dinoflagellate cysts in southwestern Patagonia, Argen-tina. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 52, 166–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsam....
Haasl, D.M., Hansen, T.A., 1996. Timing of latest Eocene molluscan extinction patterns in Mississippi. Palaios 11, 487–494.
Hammer, Ø., Harper, D.A.T., Ryan, P.D., 2007. PAST: Paleontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 4(1), art. 4.
Haq, B.U., Handerbol, J., Vail, P.R., 1987. Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the Triassic. Science 235, 1156–1167. https://doi.org/10.1126/scienc....
Ikegwuonu, O.N., Umeji, O.P., 2016. Palynological age and palaeoenvironment of deposition of Mid-Cenozoic sedi-ments around Umuahia, Niger delta basin, southeastern Nigeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences 117(1), 160–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafr....
Ikegwuonu, O.N., Umeji, O.P., Chiaghanam, O.I., Nwozor, K.K., Ndukwe, O.S., 2020. Palynomorph assemblage biozonation of Paleogene strata in Bende–Umuahia Area, Niger Delta Basin, southeastern Nigeria. Journal of Palaeogeography 9, 13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s42501....
Ivany, L., Patterson, W., Lohmann, K., 2000. Cooler winters as a possible cause of mass extinctions at the Eo-cene/Oligocene boundary. Nature 407, 887–890. https://doi.org/10.1038/350380....
Jaramillo, C., Rueda, M., Bayona, G., Santos, C., Florez, P., Parra, F., 2009. Biostratigraphy breaking paradigms: dating the Mirador Formation in the llanos Basin of Colombia. In: Demchuk, T. (ed.), Biostratigraphic Applica-tions. SEPM Special Publication 93, 29–40.
Jones, H.A., Hockey, R.D., 1964. The geology of part of Southwestern Nigeria. Geological Survey Nigeria. Bulletin 31, 1–101.
Kadafa, A.A., 2012. Environmental Impacts of Oil Exploration and Exploitation in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research Environment & Earth Sciences 12(3), 19–28.
Kadafa, A.A., Mohamad, P.Z., Othman, F., 2012. Oil Spillage and Pollution in Nigeria: Organizational Management and Institutional Framework. Journal of Environment and Earth Science 2(4), 2224–3216.
Krapez, B., 1996. Sequence stratigraphic concepts applied to the identification of basin-filling rhythms in Precam-brian successions. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 43(4), 355–380. https://doi.org/10.1080/081200....
Krapez, B., 1997. Sequence-stratigraphic concepts applied to the identification of depositional basins and global tectonic cycles. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 44(1), 1–36. https://doi.org/10.1080/081200....
Krebs, W.N., 2011. Upper Tertiary chronosequence stratigraphy of offshore Sabah and Sarawak, NW Borneo, Ma-laysia: a unified scheme based on graphic correlation. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia 57, 39–46.
Krebs, W.N., Wescott, W.A., Nummedal, D., Gaafar, I., Azazi, G., Karamat, S., 1997. Graphic Correlation and se-quence stratigraphy of Neogene rocks in the Gulf of Suez. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 168(1), 63–71.
Legoux, O., 1978. Quelques espaces de pollen caracteristiques du Neogane du Nigeria; Bulletin Centres Recherche Exploration-Production d’Elf-Aquitaine 2(2), 265–317.
Lehner, P., De Ruiter, P.A.C., 1977. Structural history of Atlantic Margin of Africa. The American Association of Petroleum Geologist Bulletin 61(7), 961–981.
Mann, K.O., Lane, H.R., 1995. Graphic Correlation: A Powerful Stratigraphic Technique Comes of Age. In: Mann, K.O., Lane, R. Scholle, P.A. (eds), Graphic Corellation. SEPM Society for Sedimentary Geology 53. https://doi.org/10.2110/pec.95....
Mathews, R.P., Singh, B., Singh, H., Singh, V.P., Singh, A., 2018. Characterization of Panandhro Lignite Deposits (Kachchh Basin), western India: Results from the Bulk Geochemical and Palynofloral Compositions. Journal of the Geological Society of India 91(3), 281–289. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12594....
Miller, F.X., 1977. The graphic correlation method in biostratigraphy. In: Kauffman, E., Hazel, J. (eds), Concepts and Methods of Biostratigraphy. Hutchinson, and Ross, Stroudsburg, Dowden, pp. 165–186.
Mkinga, O.J., Skogen, E., Kleppe, J., 2020. Petrophysical interpretation in shaly sand formation of a gas field in Tanzania. Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology 10, 1201–1213.
Murphy, M.A., Berry, W.B.N., 1983. Early Devonian conodont-graptolite collation and correlations with brachiopod and coral zones, central Nevada. AAPG Bulletin 67(3), 371–379.
Neal, J.E., Stein, J.A., Gamber, J.H., 1994. Graphic correlation and sequence stratigraphy of the Paleogene of NW Europe. Journal of Micropalaeontology 13, 55–80. https://doi.org/10.1144/jm.13.....
Obaje, N.G., 2009. Geology and Mineral Resources of Nigeria. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences, vol. 120. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 103–108. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-....
Oboh, F.E., Jaramillo, C.A., Reeves-Morris, L.M., 1996. Late Eocene-Early Oligocene paleofloristic patterns in southern Mississippi and Alabama, US Gulf Coast. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 91, 23–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-6....
Odeyemi, O., Ogunseitan, O.A., 1985. Petroleum Industry and its Pollution Potential in Nigeria. Oil and Petroleum Pollution, Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd, England 2, 223–229. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S014....
Odin, G.S., Montanari, A., 1989. Age radiométrique et stratotype de la limite Éocène Oligocène. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris, 309, 1939–1945.
Ogbe, F.G.A., 1972. Stratigraphy of Strata exposed in Ewekoro quarry, Western Nigeria. In: Dessauvagie, T.F.J., Whiteman, A.J. (eds), African Geology. Ibadan University Press, pp. 305–322.
Okosun, E.A., 1990. A review of the Cretaceous Stratigraphy of Dahomey Embayment West Africa. Cretaceous Research 11, 17–27.
Olayiwola, M.A., 2021. Sequence stratigraphy and depositional systems of late Miocene to early Pliocene deep offshore Niger Delta, southeastern Nigeria. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 14, 979. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517....
Olayiwola, M.A., Bamford, K.M., 2019. Depositional environment and reservoir characterization of the deep offshore Upper Miocene to Early Pliocene Agbada Formation, Niger delta, Nigeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences 159, 103578. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafr....
Olayiwola, M.A., Bamford, M.K., Durugbo, E.U., 2017. Graphic correlation: A powerful tool for biostratigraphic correlation of petroleum exploration and production in the Cenozoic deep offshore Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences 131, 156–165.
Olayiwola, M.A., Durugbo, E.U., Fajemila, O.T., Oyebanjo, M.O., 2021. Sequence stratigraphy of subsurface upper Eocene-lower Oligocene deposits, Dahomey Basin, Southwestern Nigeria: palynological and palynofacies ap-proach. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 14, 1420. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517....
Olayiwola, M.A., Aderogba, A.A., Durugbo, U.E., Fajemila, T.O., Aderanti, A.A., 2022. Palaeoenvironmental Re-construction and Hydrocarbon Potential of some Mid-Upper Cretaceous and Late Eocene-Early Oligocene sed-iments from two Southern Nigerian Inland Basins: Insights from Palynology and Palynofacies. Journal of Mining and Geology 58(1), 173–188.
Omatsola, M.E., Adegoke, O.S., 1981. Tectonic evolution and Cretaceous stratigraphy of the Dahomey Basin. Journal of Mining and Geology 18(1), 130–137.
Onuoha, K.M., Dim, C.I., 2016. Prospects and Challenges of Developing Unconventional Petroleum Resources in the Anambra Inland Basin of Nigeria. Paper presented at the SPE/AAPG Africa Energy and Technology Conference, Nairobi City, Kenya, December 2016. Paper Number: SPE-AFRC-2571791-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/AFRC-2....
Quattrocchio, M.E., Martínez. M.A., Carpinelli Pavisich, A., Volkheimer, W., 2006. Early Cretaceous palynostra-tigraphy, palynofacies and palaeoenvironments of well sections in northeastern Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 27(4), 584–602. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cret....
Rabe, B.D., Cisne, J.L., 1980, Chronostratigraphic accuracy of ecostratigraphic correlation. Lethaia 13, 109–118.
Reyment, R.A., 1965. Aspects of the geology of Nigeria. Ibadan University Press, pp. 1–144.
Rull, V., 2002. High-Impact Palynology in Petroleum Geology: Applications from Venezuela (Northern South America). AAPG Bulletin 86(2), 279–300.
Salami, M.B., 1983. Upper Senonian and Lower Tertiary pollen grains from the Southern Nigeria Sedimentary Basin. Revista Espanola de Micropaleontologia 25, 5–26.
Sciumbata, M., Weedon, J.T., Bogota-Angel, G., Hoorn, C., 2021. Linking modern-day relicts to a Miocene mangrove community of western Amazonia. Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments 101(1), 123–140. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12549....
Selley, R.C., 1976. Subsurface environmental analysis of North Sea sediments. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologist 60, 184–195.
Shaw, A.B., 1964. Time in Stratigraphy. McGraw Hill Book Co. New York, pp. 1–365.
Short, K.C., Stauble, A.J., 1967. Outline of Geology of Niger delta: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 51, 761–779.
Singh, H., Prasad, M., Kumar, K., Singh, S.K., 2015. Early Eocene macroflora and associated palynofossils from the Cambay Shale Formation, western India: Phytogeographic and palaeoclimatic implications. Palaeoworld 24, 293–323.
Stuchlik, L., 2001. Atlas of pollen and spores of the Polish Neogene. Vol. 1 – Spores. 158. W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Acadamy of Sciences, Kraków.
Sweet, W.C., 1992. A Conodont-based high-resolution biostratigraphy of the PermoTriassic boundary interval. In: Sweet, W.C., Yang, Z.Y., Dickins, J.M., Yin, H.F. (eds), Permo-Triassic Events in Eastern Tethys. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 120–133.
Willumsen, P.S., 2004. Palynology of the Lower Eocene deposits of northwest Jutland, Denmark. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark 52, 141–157.
Zarei, E., 2017. Palynofacies analysis and paleoenvironmental interpretation of the Dalichai Formation, northeast of Semnan. Geopersia 7(1), 27–34. https://doi.org/10.22059/geope....
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top