Fruit morphology, anatomy and relationships of the type species of Mastixicarpum and Eomastixia (Cornales) from the late Eocene of Hordle, southern England
More details
Hide details
Florida Museum of Natural History, Dickinson Hall, P.O. Box 117800, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.
Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX, United Kingdom
Online publication date: 2019-06-18
Publication date: 2019-06-18
Acta Palaeobotanica 2019; 59(1): 51–67
The Mastixiaceae (Cornales) were more widespread and diverse in the Cenozoic than they are today. The fossil record includes fruits of both extant genera, Mastixia and Diplopanax, as well as several extinct genera. Two of the fossil genera, Eomastixia and Mastixicarpum, are prominent in the palaeobotanical literature, but concepts of their delimitation have varied with different authors. These genera, both based on species described 93 years ago by Marjorie Chandler from the late Eocene (Priabonian) Totland Bay Member of the Headon Hill Formation at Hordle, England, are nomenclaturally fundamental, because they were the first of a series of fossil mastixioid genera published from the European Cenozoic. In order to better understand the type species of Eomastixia and Mastixicarpum, we studied type specimens and topotypic material using x-ray tomography and scanning electron microscopy to supplement traditional methods of analysis, to improve our understanding of the morphology and anatomy of these fossils. Following comparisons with other fossil and modern taxa, we retain Mastixicarpum crassum Chandler rather than transferring it to the similar extant genus Diplopanax, and we retain Eomastixia bilocularis Chandler [=Eomastixia rugosa (Zenker) Chandler] and corroborate earlier conclusions that this species represents an extinct genus that is more closely related to Mastixia than to Diplopanax.
Aarssen B.G.K. van, De Leeuw J.W., Collinson M., Boon J.J. & Goth K. 1994. Occurrence of polycadinene in fossil and recent resins. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 58: 223–230.
Atkinson B.A. 2018. The critical role of fossils in inferring deep-node phylogenetic relationships and macroevolutionary patterns in Cornales. Amer. J. Bot., 105: 1401–1411.
Atkinson B.A., Stockey R.A. & Rothwell G.W. 2017. The Early phylogenetic diversification of Cornales: Permineralized cornalean fruits from the Campanian (Upper Cretaceous) of western North America. Int. J. Plant Sci., 178: 556–566.
Atkinson B.A., Stockey R.A. & Rothwell G.W. 2018. Tracking the initial diversification of asterids: Anatomically preserved cornalean fruits from the early Coniacian (Late Cretaceous) of western North America. Int. J. Plant Sci., 179: 21–35.
Averyanov L.V. & Nguyên T.H. 2002. Diplopanax vietnamensis, a new species of Nyssaceae from Vietnam – one more living representative of the Tertiary flora of Eurasia. Novon, 12: 433–436.
Chandler M.E.J. 1926. The Upper Eocene flora of Hordle, Hants. Monogr. Palaeont. Soc., 2. London, UK.
Chandler M.E.J. 1962. The lower Tertiary floras of southern England. II. Flora of the Pipe-clay series of Dorset (Lower Bagshot). Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London: 1–176.
Cleal C.J., Thomas B.A., Batten D.J. & Collinson M.E., eds. 2001. Mesozoic and Tertiary palaeobotany of Great Britain. Geological Conservation Review Series, Number 22: 1–335. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough.
Czaja A. 2003. Paläokarpologische Untersuchungen von Taphozönosen des Unter- und Mittelmiozäns aus dem Braunkohlentagebau Berzdorf/Oberlausitz (Sachsen). Palaeontographica, B, 256: 1–148.
Collinson M.E. 1996. Plant macrofossils from the Bracklesham Group (Early & Middle Eocene), Bracklesham Bay, West Sussex; review and significance in the context of coeval British Tertiary floras. Tertiary Research, 16: 175–202.
Collinson M.E., Manchester S.R & Wilde V. 2012. Fossil fruits and seeds of the Middle Eocene Messel biota, Germany. Abh. Senckenberg Gesell. Naturforsch., 570: 1–251.
Eyde R.H. 1963. Morphological and paleobotanical studies of the Nyssaceae. I. The modern species and their fruits. J. Arnold Arbor., 44: 1–59.
Eyde R.H. & Xiang Q.-Y. 1990. Fossil mastixioid (Cornaceae) alive in eastern Asia. Amer. J. Bot., 77: 689–692.
Handel-Mazzetti H.F. 1933. Plantae novae Chingianae, III. Sinensia, 3: 185–198.
Holý F. 1975. Representatives of the family Mastixiaceae Calestani 1905 in the Bohemian Tertiary. Acta Mus. Natl. Pragae Ser. B Hist. Nat., 31(3–5): 123–147.
Hably L. & Erdei B. 2013. A refugium of Mastixia in the late Miocene of eastern Central Europe. Rev. Palaeobot. Palyn., 197: 218–225.
Kirchheimer F. 1934. Neue Ergebnisse und Probleme paläobotanischer Braunkohlenforschungen. Braunkohle, 33: 769–774.
Kirchheimer F. 1935a. Bau und botanishe Zhugehörigkeit von Pflanzenresten aus deutschen Braunkohlen. Bot. Jahrb., 67: 37–122, 13 pl.
Kirchheimer F. 1935b. Weitere Mitteilungen über die Früchte und Samen aus deutschen Braunkohlen. Braunkohle, 34: 289–294.
Kirchheimer F. 1936. Zur Kenntnis der Früchte rezenter und fossiler Mastixoioideen. Beih. Bot. Zentralbl. Abt. B, 55: 275–300.
Kirchheimer F. 1941. Bemerkenswerte Funde der Mastixioideen-Flora. Braunkohle, 40: 610–617.
Kirchheimer F. 1957. Die Laubgewächse der Braunkohlenzeit. W. Knapp. Verl., Halle (Saale).
Knobloch E. & Mai D.H. 1986. Monographie der Früchte und Samen in der Kreide von Mitteleuropa. Rozpr. Ustred. Ust. Geol., 47: 5–219.
Mai D.H. 1970. Subtropische Elemente im europäischen Tertiär I. Paläont. Abh. (Geol. Gesell. DDR), Abt. B, 3(3–4): 441–503.
Mai D.H. 1993. On the extinct Mastixiaceae (Cornales) in Europe. Geophytology, 23: 53–63.
Manchester S.R. 1994. Fruits and seeds of the Middle Eocene Nut Beds flora, Clarno Formation, Oregon. Palaeontogr. Am., 58: 1–205.
Marone F. & Stampanoni M. 2012. Regridding reconstruction algorithm for real-time tomographic imaging. J. Synchrotron Radiation, 19: 1029–1037.
Marone F., Münch B. & Stampanoni M. 2010. Fast reconstruction algorithm dealing with tomography artifacts. SPIE Proceedings ‘‘Developments in X-Ray Tomography VII’’ 7804, 780410, doi:10.1117/12.859703.
Martinetto E. 2011. The first mastixioid fossil from Italy and its palaeobiogeographic implications. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 167: 222–229.
Matthew K.M. 1976. A revision of the genus Mastixia (Cornaceae). Blumea, 23: 51–93.
Paganin D., Mayo S.C., Gureyev T.E., Miller P.R. & Wilkins S.W. 2002. Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object. J. Microscopy, 206(1): 33–40.
Reid E.M. & Chandler M.E.J. 1933. The London Clay flora. Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Geol. London.
Scott R.A. 1954. Fossil fruits and seeds from the Eocene Clarno Formation of Oregon. Palaeontographica, B, 96: 66–97.
Ševčík J., Kvaček Z. & Mai D.H. 2007. A new mastixioid florula from tektite-bearing deposits in South Bohemia, Czeck Republic (Middle Miocene, Vrábče Member). Bull. Geosci. (Prague), 82(4): 429–436.
Stockey R.A., LePage B.A. & Pigg K.B. 1998. Permineralized fruits of Diplopanax (Cornaceae, Mastixioideae) from the middle Eocene Princeton Chert of British Columbia. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 103: 223–234.
Tiffney B.H. & Haggard K.K. 1996. Fruits of Mastixioideae (Cornaceae) from the Paleogene of western North America. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 92: 29–54.
Zeng [Tseng] C.-J. 1983. The systematic position of Diplopanax Hand.-Mazz. Acta Phytotax. Sin., 21: 151–152.
An Early Paleocene Carpoflora from the Denver Basin of Colorado, USA, and Its Implications for Plant-Animal Interactions and Fruit Size Evolution
Indah Huegele, Steven Manchester
International Journal of Plant Sciences
Newly Recognized Diversity of Fruits and Seeds from the Late Paleogene Flora of Trinity County, East Texas, USA
Indah Huegele, Steven Manchester
International Journal of Plant Sciences
Cavilignum pratchettii gen. et sp. nov., a novel type of fossil endocarp with open locules from the Neogene Gray Fossil Site, Tennessee, USA
Caroline Siegert, Elizabeth Hermsen
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology
A tale of two morphs: developmental patterns and mechanisms of seed coat differentiation in the dimorphic diaspore model Aethionema arabicum (Brassicaceae)
Waheed Arshad, Teresa Lenser, Per Wilhelmsson, Jake Chandler, Tina Steinbrecher, Federica Marone, Marta Pérez, Margaret Collinson, Wolfgang Stuppy, Stefan Rensing, Günter Theißen, Gerhard Leubner‐Metzger
The Plant Journal
First occurrence of Nyssa endocarps and associated fungi in the Oligocene of South China: palaeogeographical and palaeoecological significance
Sheng‐Lan Xu, Tatiana Kodrul, Natalia Maslova, Han‐Zhang Song, Anna Tobias, Xin‐Kai Wu, Cheng Quan, Jian‐Hua Jin, Benjamin Bomfleur
Papers in Palaeontology