Revision of Fedekurtzia (pteridosperm) and allied fronds from the Carboniferous of Gondwana
More details
Hide details
División Paleobotánica, Museo de La Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Pasaje Teruggi s/no, Paseo del Bosque, B1900FWA, La Plata, Argentina
Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales B. Rivadavia, CONICET, Av. Ángel Gallardo 470, C1405DJR, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Online publication date: 2017-12-19
Publication date: 2017-12-19
Acta Palaeobotanica 2017; 57(2): 135–151
Carboniferous foliage of Fedekurtzia argentina (Kurtz) Archangelsky from Gondwana is systematically described and revised. The frond is reconstructed based on specimens of the late Serpukhovian–Bashkirian Nothorhacopteris/Botrychiopsis/Ginkgophyllum flora of western Argentina, especially from the Jejenes, Tupe and Volcán formations. The whole-frond reconstruction emphasizes the variation in pinnule shape throughout the basal, medial and distal sections of the frond. The basalmost rachis possesses cyclopteroid pinnules grading to pinnae with obovate to wedge-shaped pinnules at the medial section of the frond. Distal pinnae are shorter, bearing imbricate and more dissected pinnules. Specimens from the same type locality from which F. argentina comes, previously assigned to Triphyllopteris cuyana Leguizamón & Vega, are reassigned to F. argentina, as well as ovuliferous and microsporangiate structures in organic connection. Two decades ago a revision of the German Triphyllopteris genus rejected T. cuyana as representative of the taxon, and the Argentinian specimens remained as indeterminate “triphyllopteroid” fronds. The ovulate organ Polycalyx Vega & Archangelsky is considered to be in organic connection with vegetative fragments of F. argentina, and its cupulate character is discussed. Pollen organs represented by multi-forked axes bearing fusiform sporangia of Rinconadia Vega are also in organic attachment and included in the Fedekurtzia argentina reconstruction. The pollen or prepollen grains are trilete and with granulate sculpture. The paper presents a comparison with Botrychiopsis weissiana Kurtz emend. Archangelsky & Arrondo, which differs in its rounded and entire-margin pinnules. Similar specimens from Australia formerly described as Rhacopteris, Sphenopteridium and Archaeopteris and currently included in Fedekurtzia intermedia Rigby share morphological characters with the Argentinian species. A revision of the Australian material is necessary to confirm synonymy. Fedekurtzia belongs to the pteridosperms based on the reproductive organs and is here assigned to Austrocalyxaceae. Its reconstruction now constitutes one of the most complete seed-ferns known from the Carboniferous of Gondwana.
ARCHANGELSKY S. 1971. Las tafofloras del Sistema Paganzo en la República Argentina. Anais da Academia brasileira de Ciençias, 43 (Suplemento): 67–88.
ARCHANGELSKY S. 1981. Fedekurtzia, a new Carboniferous frond from Gondwanaland and its fructification. Am. J. Bot., 68: 1130–1138.
ARCHANGELSKY S. 1983. Nothorhacopteris, a new generic name for some Carboniferous Monopinnate fronds of Gondwanaland (= Rhacopteris ovata auct. and Pseudorhacopteris Rigby 1973). Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 38: 157–172.
ARCHANGELSKY A. & ARCHANGELSKY S. 1987. Tafoflora de la Formación Tramojo, Paleozoico tardío en la región de Uspallata, provincia de Mendoza, República Argentina. Ameghiniana 24: 251–256.
ARCHANGELSKY S. & ARRONDO O.G. 1971. Paleophytologia Kurtziana III. 2. Estudio sobre el género Botrychiopsis Kurtz (Gondwanidium Gothan) del Carbónico Pérmico Gondwánico. Ameghiniana, 8: 189–227.
ARCHANGELSKY S. & CÚNEO R. 1991. The Neopaleozoic floristic succession from Northwestern Argentina. A new perspective. Gondwana Seven, Proceedings, (eds.: H.Ulbrich y A.C. Rocha Campos): 469–481.
ARCHANGELSKY S. & AZCUY C.L. 1985. Carboniferous palaeobotany and palynology in Argentina. Compte Rendus X International Congress of Carboniferous Stratigraphy and Geology, 4: 267–280.
ARTABE A., ARCHANGELSKY S. & ARRONDO O.G. 1987. Sobre una masculina asociada a frondes de Botrychiopsis del Carbonifero de Ciénaga del Vallecito, provincia de San Juan, Argentina. Actas VII Simposio Argentino de Paleobotánica y Palinología: 21–24.
BECK C.B. 1970. The appearance of gymnospermous structure. Biol. Rev., 45: 379–399.
BOMFLEUR B., ESCAPA I.H., TAYLOR E.L. & TAYLOR T.N. 2012. Modified basal elements in Dicroidium fronds (Corystospermales). Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 170: 15–26.
CARRIZO M. A. & ARCHANGELSKY S. 2013. Kladistamuos golondrinensis nov. gen. et comb., a fertile foliage from the mid to late Permian of Patagonia, Argentina. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 196: 1–8.
CARRIZO H. & AZCUY C. 2015. Floras neodevónicas-eocarboníferas de Argentina. Opera Lilloana 49, Tucumán, 292 pp.
CÉSARI S.N. 1985. Palinología de la Formación Tupe (Paleozoico Superior), sierra de Maz, provincia de La Rioja. Parte II. Ameghiniana, 22: 197–212.
CÉSARI S.N. 1986. Megafloras de la Formación Tupe (Carbonífero) en Sierra de Maz y Ciénaga del Vallecito, Cuenca Paganzo, Argentina. Anales de la Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, 38: 111–137.
CÉSARI S.N. & BERCOWSKI F. 1997. Palinología de la Fm. Jejenes (Carbonífero) en la Quebrada de Las Lajas, Prov. de San Juan, Argentina. Nuevas inferencias paleoambientales. Ameghiniana, 34: 497–509.
CÉSARI S.N. & GUTIÉRREZ P.R. 2000. Palynostratigraphy of Upper Paleozoic sequences in central-western Argentina. Palynology, 24: 113–146.
CESARI S. & LIMARINO C. 1988. Fructificaciones asociadas a Botrychiopsis en sedimentitas lacustres del Carbonífero, provincia de San Juan, Argentina. Boletín Asociación Latinoamericana de Paleobotánica y Palinología, 11: 7–11.
CÉSARI S.N. & LIMARINO C.O. 2002. Palynology of glacial sediments from the Guandacol Formation (Middle Carboniferous) in the Cerro Bola area, Paganzo Basin, Argentina. Alcheringa, 26: 159–176.
CÉSARI S.N., ARCHANGELSKY S. & VEGA J. 2005. Anatomy of a new probable pteridosperm stem from the Late Carboniferous of Argentina. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, nueva serie, 7: 7–15.
CÉSARI S.N., LIMARINO C.O. & GULBRANSON E. 2011. An Upper Paleozoic bio–chronostratigraphic scheme for the western margin of Gondwana. Earth–Sci. Rev., 106: 149–160.
CÉSARI S., GUTIÉRREZ P., FAUQUÉ L. & LIMARINO C. 2001. La secuencia carbonífera de Trapiche (Precordillera de San Juan, Argentina): ubicación estratigráfica y contenido paleoflorístico. Publicación Especial de la Asociación Paleontológica Argentina, 8: 19–28.
CÉSARI S.N., GUTIÉRREZ P.R., SABATTINI N., ARCHANGELSKY A., AZCUY C.L., et al. 2007. Paleozoico Superior de Argentina un registro fosilífero integral en el Gondwana occidental. Publicación Especial de la Asociación Paleontológica Argentina, 11: 35–54.
CLADERA G., ARCHANGELSKY S. & VEGA J.C. 2000. Geographic, stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental precisions about the horizons bearing pteridospermic cupules in the Jejenes Formation, Carboniferous of San Juan Province, Argentina. Ameghiniana, 37: 213–219.
COTUREL E. & GUTIÉRREZ P. 2005. La megaflora de la Formación Tupe (Carbonífero Superior-Pérmico Inferior), en la Mina La Delfina, San Juan, Argentina. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales nueva serie, 7: 17–29.
ETHERIDGE R. 1888. Additions to the fossil flora of eastern Australia. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 2: 1300–1309.
ETHERIDGE R. 1894. Occasional descriptions of New South Wales fossils, Palaeontologia Novae Cambriae Meridionales. Records Geological Survey of New South Wales, 4: 32–37.
FEISTMANTEL O. 1878. Palaeozoische und mesozoische Flora des östlichen Australiens. Palaeontographica Suppl., 3: 53–130.
FEISTMANTEL O. 1879. Palaeozoische und mesozoische Flora des Australiens. Palaeontographica Suppl., 3: 133–195.
FEISTMANTEL O. 1890. Geological and Palaeontological Relations of the Coal and Plant-bearing Beds of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Age in Eastern Australia and Tasmania. Memoirs Geological Survey New South Wales, Palaeontology, 3: 1–183.
FRENGUELLI J. 1941. Sobre una flórula Carbonífera de Agua de los Jejenes, San Juan, conservada en el Museo de La Plata. Notas del Museo de La Plata, 6: 459–478.
FRENGUELLI J. 1944. Apuntes acerca del Paleozoico superior del noroeste argentino. Museo Ciencias Naturales de La Plata, Revista n.s. Geol., 2: 213–265.
FRENGUELLI J. 1946. El carbonífero argentino según sus floras fósiles. Asociación Geológica Argentina Revista, 1: 107–115.
GONZÁLEZ AMICÓN O.R. 1973. Microflora carbónica de la localidad de Retamito, provincia de San Juan. Ameghiniana, 10: 1–35.
GUTIÉRREZ P.R. 1994. Fructificaciones asociadas a Fedekurtzia Archangelsky en el Carbonífero de la prov. de La Rioja, Argentina. Ameghiniana, 31: 239–248.
GUTIÉRREZ P.R. & CÉSARI S.N. 1987. Nuevos elementos microfloristicos de la Formación Jejenes (Carbónico), Provincia de San Juan. I Jornadas de Geología de Precordillera, Actas, 1: 168–173.
IANNUZZI R. & LABANDEIRA C.C. 2008. The oldest record of external foliage feeding and the expansion of insect folivory on land. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am., 101: 79–94.
IANNUZZI R. & PFEFFERKORN H.W. 2002. A pre-glacial, warm-temperate floral belt in Gondwana (Late Visean, Early Carboniferous). Palaios, 17: 571–590.
JASPER A., GUERRA-SOMMER M., CAZZULO-KLE­PZIG M. & MENEGAT R. 2003. The Botrychio­psis genus and its biostratigraphic implications in Southern Paraná Basin. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 75: 513–535.
KNAUS M.J. 1994. Triphyllopteris collombiana: A clarification of the generic concept based on rediscovered specimens from Kossberg bei Plauen, Germany, and a reassignment of the North American species of Triphyllopteris to Genselia gen. nov. Int. J. Plant Sci., 155: 97–166.
KNAUS M.J. 1995. The species of the Early Carboniferous fossil plant genus Genselia. Int. J. Plant Sci., 156: 61–92.
KURTZ F. 1894. Contribuciones a la Palaeophytología Argentina. 1. Botrychiopsis, un género nuevo de las Cardiopterídeas. Revista del Museo de La Plata, 6: 117–126.
KURTZ F. 1921. Atlas de plantas fósiles de la República Argentina. Actas Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Córdoba, 7: 129–153.
LEGUIZAMÓN R. & VEGA J.C. 1991. El género Triphyllopteris (morfogénero de frondes) en el Carbonífero de la República Argentina. Ameghiniana, 27: 305–309.
LIMARINO C.O., TRIPALDI A., MARENSSI S. & FAUQUÉ L. 2006. Tectonic, sea-level, and climatic controls on Late Paleozoic sedimentation in the western basins of Argentina. J. S. Am. Earth Sci., 22: 205–226.
LIMARINO C.O., CÉSARI S.N., SPALLETTI L.A., TABOADA A.C., ISBELL J.L., GEUNA S. & GULBRANSON E.L. 2014. A paleoclimatic review of southern South America during the late Paleozoic: A record from icehouse to extreme greenhouse conditions. Gondwana Res., 25: 1396–1421.
MCCOY F. 1847. On the fossil botany and zoology of the rocks associated with the coal in Australia. Ann. Magaz. Nat. Hist., 20: 145–157.
MORRIS L.N. 1975. The Rhacopteris Flora in New South Wales: 99–108. In: Campbell H.S.W. (ed), Gondwana Geology, Canberra, Australia.
MORRIS L.N. 1980. Carboniferous floral succession in eastern Australia: 350–358. In: Herbert C. & Helby, R. (eds), A guide to the Sydney Basin. Bull. Geol. Surv. New South Wales, 26.
MORRIS L.N. 1985. The floral succession in eastern Australia: 118–123. In: Roberts J. (ed.) Australia. The Carboniferous of the World II. IGME.
ORLOVA O.A., MEYER-MELIKIAN N.R. & ZAVIALOVA N.E. 2009. A new microsporangiate organ from the Lower Carboniferous of the Novgorod Region, Russia. Paleontol. J., 43: 1316–1329.
READ C.B. 1938. The age of the Carboniferous strata of the Paracas Peninsula, Peru. J. Wash. Acad. Sci., 28: 396–404.
RETALLACK G.J. 1980. Late Carboniferous to middle Triassic megafossil floras from the Sydney Basin: 384–430. In: Herbert C. & R. Helby (eds), A Guide to the Sydney Basin. Bull. Geol. Surv. New South Wales, 26.
RIGBY J.F. 1969. A revaluation of pre-gondwana carboniferous flora. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, 41: 394–413.
RIGBY J.F. 1973. Gondwanidium and other similar Upper Palaeozoic genera, and their stratigraphic significance. Geol. Surv. Queensl., Publ. 350, Palaeontological Papers, 24: 1–19.
RIGBY J.F. 1985. Aspects of Carboniferous palaeobotany in eastern Australia. Compte Rendu Dixième Congrès International de Stratigraphie et de Géologie du Carbonifère, 4: 307–12.
SERBET R., HAGEMAN S., HOFFMAN B.L., TAYLOR T.N. & TAYLOR E.L. 2016. A new Pennsylvanian pollen organ from northwestern Missouri with affinities in the Lyginopteridales. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 234: 136–146.
STEWART W.N. & ROTHWELL G.W. 1993. Paleobotany and the evolution of plants. Cambridge University Press, 521 pp.
SZAJNOCHA L. 1891. Über einige Carbone Pflauzeureste aus den Argentinische Republik. Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 100: 203–213.
TAYLOR E.L., TAYLOR T.N. & KRINGS M. 2009. Paleobotany: the biology and evolution of fossil plants. Academic Press, 1–1230.
VÁZQUEZ M.S., CORREA G., COLOMBI C., DROVANDI J. & CÉSARI S.N. 2016. Revisión de una localidad clásica del carbonífero de Precordillera: Retamino, provincia de San Juan. Acta geológica Lilloana (Supl.), 28: 177–183.
VEGA J.C. 1995a. Rinconadia archangelskyi, gen. et sp. nov., a new fertile structure bearing sporangium-like bodies attached to bipnnate fronds from the Jejenes Formation (Carboniferous, San Juan Province, Argentina). Actas 6° Congreso Argentino de Paleontología y Bioestratigrafía (Trelew, 1994): 291–299.
VEGA J.C. 1995b. La flora fósil de la Formación Jejenes (Carbonífero). Implicancias paleoclimáticas y paleobiogeográficas. Ameghiniana, 32: 31–40.
VEGA J.C. & ARCHANGELSKY S. 1997. The first Gondwana Carboniferous compound cupules and associated seeds. A preliminary note. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 99: 55–59.
VEGA J.C. & ARCHANGELSKY S. 2000. Jejenia gen. nov., a new Carboniferous disseminule from San Juan, Argentina. Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias, 64: 61–69.
VEGA J.C. & ARCHANGELSKY S. 2001. Austrocalyxaceae, a new pteridosperm family from Gondwana. Palaeontographica, B, 257: 1–16.
WALKOM A.B. 1934. Notes on some Carboniferous plants from New South Wales. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 59: 430–434.
WALTON J. 1940. An introduction to the study of fossil plants. Adam and Charles Black, London, 1–188.
WHITE M. 1965. Plant fossil collection from the Georgetown/Clarke River Area. Appendix 3, in D.A.White (ed.) The Geology of the Georgetown/Clarke River Area, Queensland. Bull. Bur. Miner.Res., Geophysics of Australia, 71: 152–165.
Revision of Botrychiopsis plantiana: A Key Species of the Gzhelian–Cisuralian in Westernmost Gondwana
Johana Fernández
Introduction to Plant Fossils
Christopher Cleal, Barry Thomas