Late middle Miocene Konan flora from northern Hokkaido, Japan
More details
Hide details
Sapporo Moiwa High School, 3-2-1-1, Kawazoe, Minami-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 005-0803, Japan
Department of Geology and Paleontology, National Museum of Nature and Science, 4-1-1, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0005, Japan
Graduate school of Science, Chiba University, Japan
Online publication date: 2020-12-03
Publication date: 2020-12-30
Acta Palaeobotanica 2020; 60(2): 259–295
Plant macrofossils from the upper middle Miocene Konan Tuffaceous Sandstone and Mudstone Member of the Bifuka Formation, known as the Konan flora, northwest of Shibetsu City, Hokkaido, Japan, were taxonomically revised. A total of 31 taxa were recognized, which were assigned to 14 families and 19 genera, including a new fossil species, Salix palaeofutura sp. nov. The Konan flora includes three taxa of evergreen conifers, one perennial monocot herb and 27 deciduous dicots. The most abundant and common species were Fagus palaeojaponica, Acer subcarpinifolium, Acer protojaponicum, Picea sp. A and Cercidiphyllum crenatum, in addition to a number of species of the Betulaceae and Salicaceae. From the absence of evergreen angiosperms as well as the common occurrence of Fagus palaeojaponica, Picea, Acer and Betulaceae species, this flora was comparable to that seen in the modern Mixed Northern Hardwood Forest of East Asia, which is distributed in northernmost Honshu and extends toward lowland Hokkaido. On the basis of floral features, mode of occurrence, and the lithology of plant-bearing beds, the Konan flora was deemed to represent mountain to riverside vegetation with humid and cool temperate climatic conditions. In contrast to the early to late Miocene floras in Japan, the Konan flora belongs to the late Miocene–Pliocene Mitoku-type flora, with a few relict species from the early Miocene. The Konan flora represents one of the earliest occurrences of this type of flora, suggesting that floral modernization was initiated much earlier in areas with humid and cool temperate climate than previously thought.
Brown, R.W., 1935. Miocene leaves, fruits, and seeds from Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Journal of Paleontology 9(7), 572–587.
Ellis, B., Daly, D.C., Hickey, L.J., Johnson, K.R., Mitchell, J.D., Wilf, P., Wing, S.L., 2009. Manual of Leaf Architecture Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.
Endo, S., 1955. Icones fossil plants from the Japanese Islands Sangyo-Tosho, Tokyo. [in Japanese].
Goto, Y., Nakagawa, M., Wada, K., 1995. Tectonic setting of the Miocene volcanism in northern Hokkaido, Japan: Speculation from their K-Ar ages and major element chemistry. Journal of Mineralogy, Petrology and Economic Geology 90, 109–123. [in Japanese with English summary]. https://doi.org/10.2465/ganko.....
Group, T.A.P., 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the order and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1111/boj.12....
Hagiwara, S., 1977. Leaf area cline recognized in Fagus crenata. The Study of Species Biology 1, 39–51. [in Japanese].
Hashimoto, W., Nagao, S., Kanno, S., 1965. Explanatory text of the Geological map of Japan, scale 1: 50,000, Soeushinai (Asahikawa-35) Geological Survey of Hokkaido. [in Japanese with English summary].
Heer, O., 1859. Flora Tertiaria Helvetiae die Tertiäre Flora der Schweiz Verlag der Lithographischen Austalt von J. Wurster & Compagnie, Winterthur.
Heer, O., 1869. Miocene baltische Flora. Beiträge zur Naturkunde Preussens 2, 1–104, pls. 101–156, Miocene paleogeographic map of Europe.
Hickey, L.J., Peterson, R.K., 1978. Zingiberopsis, a fossil genus of the ginger family from Late Cretaceous to early Eocene sediments of Western Interior North America. Canadian Journal of Botany 56, 1136–1152. https://doi.org/10.1139/b78-12....
Hu, H.H., Chaney, R.W., 1938. A Miocene flora from Shantung Province, China Part 1. Introduction and systematic considerations. Paleontologica Sinica, 1: 1–82, pls. 1–50.
Huzioka, K., 1943. On some fossil involucres of Ostrya and Carpinus from the Miocene deposits of Hokkaido and Tyosen. Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 50(602), 317–325.
Huzioka, K., 1964. The Aniai flora of Akita Prefecture and the Aniai-type floras in Honshu, Japan. Journal of the Mining College, Akita University, ser. A, 3(4), 1–105, pls. 1–18.
Huzioka, K., 1972. The Tertiary Floras of Korea. Journal of Mining College, Akita University, ser. A, 5(1), 1–83, pls. 1–14.
Huzioka, K., Nishida, S., 1960. The Seki flora of Island of Sado, Japan. Publication of Sado Museum 3, 1–26, pls. 1–7.
Huzioka, K., Uemura, K., 1973. The Late Miocene Miyata flora of Akita Prefecture, Northeast Honshu, Japan. Bulletin of the National Science Museum 16(4), 661–738, pls. 1–18.
Huzioka, K., Uemura, K., 1974. The Late Miocene Sanzugawa Flora of Akita Prefecture, Northeast Honshu, Japan. Bulletin of the National Science Museum 17(4), 325–366, pls. 1–11.
Imanishi, S., 1956. Explanatory text of the geological map of Japan, Scale 1: 50000, Nayoro (Asahikawa- 32) Geological Survey of Hokkaido, Sapporo. [in Japanese with English summary].
Kato, M., Ebihara, A., (eds). 2011. Endemic Plants of Japan, Tokai University Press, Hatano, Kanagawa. [in Japanese].
Kramer, K.U., Green, P.S., (eds). 1990. Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms, Springer-Verlag.
Kunzmann, L., 2012. Early Oligocene riparian and swamp forests with a mass occurrence of Zingiberoideophyllum (extinct Zingiberales) from Saxony, Central Germany. Palaios 27, 765–778. https://doi.org/10.2110/palo.2....
Miki, S., 1941. On the change of flora in Eastern Asia since Tertiary period (I). The clay or lignite beds flora in Japan with special reference to the Pinus trifolia beds in Central Hondo. Japanese Journal of Botany 11, 237–303.
Narita, A., Uemura, K., Matsumoto, M., Yabe, A., 2012. Middle Miocene megafossil flora from Konan, northwestern part of Shibetsu City, Hokkaido, Japan. Fossils, the Palaeontological Society of Japan 92, 5–18. [in Japanese with English summary].
Narita, A., Yabe, A., Matsumoto, M., Uemura, K., 2017. Paleo-vegetation analysis of the Miocene plant megafossil assemblages from Kaminayoro of Shimokawa Town, Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 123(3), 131–145. [in Japanese with English summary]. https://doi.org/10.5575/geosoc....
Nathorst, A.G., 1883. Contributions a la Flore Fossile du Japon. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar 20(2), 1–91, pls. 1–16.
Nathorst, A.G., 1888. Zur Fossilen Flora Japan’s. Palaeontologische Abhandlungen 4(3), 197–250, pls. 17–30.
Ogasawara, K., Uemura, K., 2006. History of the Japanese Islands and origin of their faunas and floras: 60–78. In: Uemura, K., et al. (Ed.), Natural History of the Japanese Islands, Tokai University Press, Hatano, Kanagawa. [in Japanese].
Oka, T., 1994. Geology and Underground Resources of Naroyo City Geological Survey of Hokkaido, Sapporo. [in Japanese].
Okutsu, H., 1940. Fossil plants from the Nenoshiroishi plant beds near Sendai (I). Saito-Ho-on Kai Museum Research Bulletin 19, 153–169, pls. 7–14.
Okutsu, H., 1955. On the stratigraphy and paleobotany of the Cenozoic plant beds of the Sendai Area. The Science Reports of the Tohoku University, ser, 2, 26, 1–114, pls. 1–8.
Ozaki, K., 1991. Late Miocene and Pliocene floras in central Honshu, Japan Kanagawa Prefectural Museum, Yokohama.
Pavlyutkin, B.I., 2005. The Mid-Miocene Khanka Flora of the Primorye Dalnauka, Vladivostok. [in Russian with English summary].
Pavlyutkin, B.I., Yabe, A., Golozoubov, V.V., Simanenko, L.F., 2016. Miocene floral changes in the circum-Japan Sea areas – their implications in the climatic changes and the time of Japan Sea Opening. Memoirs of the National Museum of Nature and Science 51, 109–123.
Saporta, G., 1888. Dernières adojonctions a la flore fossile d’Aix-en-Province. Annales des sciences naturelles. Botanique, sér. 7, 7, 1–104, pls. 1–10.
Shibata, K., Sato, H., Nakagawa, M., 1981. K-Ar ages of Neogene volcanic rocks from the Noto Peninsula. Journal of the Japanese Association of Mineralogists, Petrologists and Economic Geologists 76, 248–252.
Shibata, K., Tanai, T., 1982. K-Ar age of Tertiary volcanic rocks in the Hokkaido. Problems on Neogene Biostratigraphy of Hokkaido, Research Correspondence Paper 1, 81–90. [in Japanese, original title translated].
Shimizu, Y., 2014. Process of the formation of Japanese forest and typification of vegetation zone – From an East Asian viewpoint. Studies in Regional Science 27, 19–75. [in Japanese with English summary].
Suzuki, K., 1959. On the flora of the upper Miocene Tennoji Formation in the Fukushima Basin, Japan, and its palaeoecological aspect. Monograph of the Association of the Geological Collaboration, 9, 1–49, pls. 1–5.
Suzuki, N., 1963. Late Tertiary maples from northeastern Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, ser. 4, 11(4), 683– 693, pls. 1–5.
Taira, A., 1990. The Birth of the Japanese Island. Iwanami Shoten, Publishers, Tokyo. [in Japanese].
Takahashi, K., Osanai, H., Matsushita, K., Mitani, K., Nakamura, K., 1971. Explanatory text of the geological map of Japan, Scale 1: 50000, Fukinodai (Asahikawa-31) Hokkaido Development Agency, Sapporo. [in Japanese with English summary].
Tanai, T., 1952. Des Fossiles vegetaux dans le bassin houiller de Nishitagawa, Prefecture de Yamagata, Japon. Japanese Journal of Geology and Geography 22, 119–135, pls. 4–5.
Tanai, T., 1955. Illustrated catalogue of Tertiary plants in Japanese coal fields. Report of Geological Survey of Japan 163, 1–16, pls. 1–22.
Tanai, T., 1961. Neogene floral change in Japan. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, ser. 4, 11(2), 119–398, pls. 1–32.
Tanai, T., 1971. The Miocene Sakipenpetsu Flora from Ashibetsu Area, Central Hokkaido, Japan. Memoirs of the National Science Museum, Tokyo, 4, 128–172.
Tanai, T., 1978. Taxonomical investigation of the living species of the genus Acer L., based on vein architecture. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, ser. 4, 18(3), 243–282.
Tanai, T., 1983. Revisions of the Tertiary Acer from East Asia. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido Imperial University, ser. 4, 20(4), 291–390.
Tanai, T., 1992. Tertiary vegetational history of East Asia. Bulletin of the Mizunami Fossil Museum 19, 125–163. [in Japanese with English summary].
Tanai, T., Onoe, T., 1959. A Miocene flora from the northern part of the Joban coal field, Japan. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Japan 10, 261–286.
Tanai, T., Onoe, T., 1961. A Mio-Pliocene flora from the Ningyo-toge area on the border between Tottori and Okayama Prefectures, Japan. Report of the Geological Survey of Japan 187, 1–63, pls. 1–18.
Tanai, T., Suzuki, N., 1965. Late Tertiary floras from Northeastern Hokkaido, Japan. Palaeontological Society of Japan, Special Papers (10), 1–117, pls. 1–21.
Tanai, T., Ozaki, K., 1977. The genus Acer from the Upper Miocene in Tottori Prefecture, western Japan. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido Imperial University, ser. 4, 17(4), 575–606.
Tanai, T., Sato, S., Nakasuji, H., 1981. Late Neogene floral stratigraphy in the Bifuka-Utanobori area. Problems on Neogene Biostratigraphy of Hokkaido, Research Correspondence Paper 1, 38–43. [in Japanese; original title translated].
Tanai, T., Sato, S., Nakasuji, H., 1992. Neogene stratigraphy in the western part of Bihuka-cho, Northcentral Hokkaido. Memoirs of the National Science Museum, Tokyo, 25, 23–32.
Tateishi, M., Kumagai, T., Suyama, Y., Hiura, T., 2010. Differences in transpiration characteristics of Japanese beech trees, Fagus crenata, in Japan. Tree Physiology 30(6), 748–60. https://doi.org/10.1093/treeph....
Tsukagoshi, M., 2011. Recent progress in paleobotanical and geological studies of Pinus trifolia flora. Japanese Journal of Historical Botany 19, 15–24.
Tsutsumi, Y., 2014. An Illustrated Guide to Birth of the Japanese Islands Kodansha, Tokyo. [in Japanese].
Uemura, K., 1988. Late Miocene floras in Northeast Honshu, Japan. National Science Museum, Tokyo.
Uemura, K., 1989. Stratigraphic correlation, paleobotany and paleogeographical significance of the lower green-tuff strata around the Japan Sea area. Report of the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research by Ministry of Education, 1–41. [in Japanese].
Uemura, K., 1991. Middle Miocene plant megafossil assemblages from the Onnebetsu and Niupu in the Nayoro area, Hokkaido. Memoirs of the National Science Museum 24, 17–26, pls. 1–3. [in Japanese with English summary].
Uemura, K., 2000. Middle Miocene plants from Heigun- to Island, Yamaguchi Pref., southwestern Japan. Memoirs of the National Science Museum 32, 39–54. [in Japanese with English summary].
Uemura, K., 2004. Miocene plant fossils from Nonosawa in Tadami Town, Fukushima Prefecture, Northeast Japan. In: Tadami Town Board of Education (ed.), History of Tadami Town, Komeya Bookstore, Tadami. [in Japanese], pp. 61–74.
Uemura, K., Yasuno, T., 1991. Miocene plants from the Komegawaki Formation, Fukui Prefecture, central Japan. Professor Shizuka Miura Memorial Volume, 43–54.
Unger, F.J.A.N., 1850. Genera et species plantarum fossilium Wilhelmum Braumüller, Vindobonae.
Wing, S.L., Greenwood, D.R., 1993. Fossils and fossil climate: the case for equable continental interiors in the Eocene. Philosophical Transaction of Royal Society London, B, 341, 243–252. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1....
Wolfe, J.A., 1979. Temperature parameters of humid to mesic forests of Eastern Asia and relation to forests of other regions of the Northern Hemisphere and Australasia. U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1106, 1–36. https://doi.org/10.3133/pp1106.
Wolfe, J.A., 1995. Paleoclimatic estimates from Tertiary leaf assemblages. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 23, 119–142. https://doi.org/10.1146/annure....
Wolfe, J.A., Uemura, K., 1999. Using fossil leaves as paleoprecipitation indicators: An Eocene example: Comment and Reply. Geology. https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7...<0091:uflapi>2.3.co;2.
Yahata, M., 1994. Hot spring gold deposit in the Seta area, Hokkaido, Japan. Chishitsu News 480, 34–43. [in Japanese].
Yanagisawa, Y., Akiba, F., 1998. Refined Neogene diatom biostratigraphy for the northwest Pacific around Japan, with an introduction of code numbers for selected diatom biohorizons. Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 104(6), 395–414. https://doi.org/10.5575/geosoc....
Yonesaka, M., Yamamoto, J., 2004. Maple leaves similar to Acer carpinifolium Sieb. et Zucc. from the Lower Oligocene Shirakawa Formation (Kobe Group) in Kobe City, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. The Journal of the Society of Earth Scientists and Amateurs of Japan 53(1), 21–28. [in Japanese].
Yoshiyama, H., Ishikawa, M., 2005. Illustrated reference book of fallen leaves. Bun-ichi Sogo Shuppan, Tokyo. [in Japanese, original title translated].