Archaeobotanical evidence for the emergence of pastoralism and farming in southern Africa
More details
Hide details
School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies., University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa
Geology, School for Geo- and Spatial Science, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Science, North West University, South Africa
Evolutionary Studies Institute, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa
Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Online publication date: 2022-06-30
Publication date: 2022-06-30
Acta Palaeobotanica 2022; 62(1): 50-75
  • Using archaeobotanical data, we developed a narrative of pastoralism and farming.
  • Pastoralism and farming result in a distinct pattern of vegetation changes.
  • Tribulus spp (puncture vine) is an indicator of livestock farming.
  • Decline of forest and increased coprophilous fungal spores reflect human activities.
  • Fire regime changes, increased open-land, and pioneer taxa reflect human activities.
Several models which remain equivocal and controversial cite migration and/or diffusion for the emergence and spread of pastoralism and farming in southern Africa during the first millennium AD. A synthesis of archaeobotanical proxies (e.g., palynology, phytoliths, anthracology) consistent with existing archaeobotanical and archaeological data leads to new insights into anthropogenic impacts in palaeorecords. Harnessing such archaeobotanical evidence is viable for tracing the spread of pastoralism and farming in the first millennium AD because the impact of anthropogenic practices is likely to result in distinct patterns of vegetation change. We assess this impact through the synthesis of published archaeobotanical evidence of pastoralism and farming, as well as vegetation changes in southern Africa during the first millennium AD. It has been argued that the decline of forests during the first millennium AD in southern Africa predominantly relates to climate change. This argument often precludes anthropogenic effects on vegetation. Our reassessment of the relationship between vegetation, climate, and human activities in southern Africa reveals evidence of human impact during the same period. We also highlight gaps in the current knowledge of early pastoralism and farming and potential future research directions. We hypothesize that the pattern exhibited by the decline of forest tree pollen, coupled with the increase of open-land indicators, the occurrence of pioneer trees, as well as the spores of coprophilous fungi, and possible changes in the fire regime are reflective of, and consistent with, anthropogenic activities of pre-European pastoralists and farmers.
Albrecht, M., Berke, H., Eichhorn, B., Frank, T., Kuper, R., Prill, S., Vogelsang, R., Wenzel, S., 2001. Oruwanje 95/1: a late Holocene stratigraphy in northwestern Namibia. Cimbebasia 17, 1–22.
Allen, E.B., Steers, R.J., Dickens, S.J., 2011. Impacts of fire and invasive species on desert soil ecology. Rangeland Ecology & Management 64, 450–462. https://doi.org/10.2111/REM-D-....
Andah, B.W., 1979. Iron Age Beginnings in West Africa: Reflections and Suggestions in Perspectives on West Africa’s Past. West African Journal of Archaeology 9, 135–150.
Andah, B.W., 1995. The earliest human occupation and settlement in West Africa. The Epistemology of west African Settlements. Andah. African Peoples and Their Cultural Resources Series 25, 8–33.
Andersen, S.T., 1979. Identification of wild grass and cereal pollen [fossil pollen, Annulus diameter, surface sculpturing]. Danmarks Geologiske Undersoegelse Aarbog, 69–92.
Antonites, A., Antonites, A.R., 2014. The Archaeobotany of Farming Communities in South Africa. In: Stevens, C.J., Nixon, S., Murray, M.A., Fuller, D.Q. (eds), The Archaeology of African Plant Use. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, pp. 225–232.
Avery, G., 1974. Open station shell midden sites and associated features from the Pearly Beach area, south-western Cape. South African Archaeological Bulletin 29, 104–114. https://doi.org/10.2307/388833....
Badenhorst, S., 2006. Goats (Capra hircus), the Khoekhoen and pastoralism: current evidence from southern Africa. African Archaeological Review 23, 45–53. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10437....
Badenhorst, S., Sinclair, P., Ekblom, A., Plug, I., 2011. Faunal remains from Chibuene, an Iron Age coastal trading station in central Mozambique. Southern African Humanities 23, 1–15.
Baker, A.G., Bhagwat, S.A., Willis, K.J., 2013. Do dung fungal spores make a good proxy for past distribution of large herbivores?. Quaternary Science Reviews 62, 21–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quas....
Barham, L., Jarman, C.L., 2005. New radiocarbon dates for the Early Iron Age in the Luangwa Valley, eastern Zambia. Azania: Journal of the British Institute in Eastern Africa 40, 114–121. https://doi.org/10.1080/006727....
Baxter, A.J., 1996. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments of the Sandveld, Western Cape Province, South Africa. PhD thesis, University of Cape Town, Cape Town.
Baxter, A.J., Davies, B.R., 1994. Palaeoecological insights for the conservation of aquatic ecosystems in dryland environments: a case study of the Verlorenvlei system, South Africa Aquatic Conservation. Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 4, 255–271. https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.32....
Beaumont, P.B., Vogel, J.C., 1972. On a new radiocarbon chronology for Africa south of the Equator: part 2. African Studies 31, 155–182. https://doi.org/10.1080/000201....
Bond, W.J., 1997. Fire. In: Cowling, R.M., Richardson, D.M., Pierce, S.M. (eds), Vegetation of Southern Africa. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Bonnefile, R., Riollet, G., 1980. Pollens des savanes O’Afrique Orienta1e. Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris.
Bousman, C.B., 1991. Holocene paleoecology and Later Stone Age hunter-gatherer adaptations in the South African interior plateau. PhD thesis, Southern Methodist University, Dallas.
Bousman, B., Scott, L., 1994. Climate or overgrazing?: the palynological evidence for vegetation change in the eastern Karoo. South African Journal of Science 90, 575–578.
Bousman, B.C., Mauldin, R., Zoppi, U., Higham, T., Scott, L., Brink, J., 2016. The quest for evidence of domestic stock at Blydefontein Rock Shelter. Southern African Humanities 28, 39–60.
Breman, E., Gillson, L., Willis, K., 2011. How fire and climate shaped grass-dominated vegetation and forest mosaics in northern South Africa during past millennia. The Holocene 22, 1427–1439. https://doi:10.1177/0959683611....
Brink, J., Webley, L., 1996. Faunal evidence for pastoralist settlement at Jakkalsberg, Richtersveld, northern Cape Province. Southern African Field Archaeology 5, 70–78.
Bromilow, C., 2018. Problem Plants and Alien Weeds of Southern Africa. Briza, Pretoria, South Africa, 464 pp.
Bronk Ramsey, C., 2017. OxCal 4.3 Manual. OxCal Program 4.3. Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, University of Oxford.
Brook, G.A., Scott, L., Railsback, L.B., Goddard, E.A., 2010. A 35 ka pollen and isotope record of environmental change along the southern margin of the Kalahari from a stalagmite and animal dung deposits in Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa. Journal of Arid Environments 74, 870–884. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jari....
Burrough, S.L., Willis, K.J., 2015. Ecosystem resilience to late-Holocene climate change in the Upper Zambezi Valley. The Holocene 25, 1811–1828. https://doi.org/10.1177/095968....
Campbell, A.C., Van Waarden, C., Holmberg, G., 1996. Variation in the early iron age of southeastern. Botswana Botswana Notes and Records, 1–22.
Carrión, J.S., Scott, L., Huffman, T., Dreyer, C., 2000. Pollen analysis of Iron Age cow dung in southern Africa. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 9, 239–249. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF0129....
Castilla-Beltrán, A., de Nascimento, L., Fernández-Palacios, J.M., Whittaker, R.J., Romeiras, M.M., Cundy, A.B., Edwards, M., Nogué, S., 2021. Effects of Holocene climate change, volcanism and mass migration on the ecosystem of a small, dry island (Brava, Cabo Verde). Journal of Biogeography 48, 1392–1405. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.14....
Chen, X., Huang, X., Wu, D., Zhang, X., Dodson, J., Zhou, A., Chen, F., 2017. Modern pollen assemblages in topsoil and surface sediments of the Xingyun Lake catchment, central Yunnan Plateau, China, and their implications for interpretation of the fossil pollen record. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 241, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revp....
Cheruiyot, V.C., Gebregiorgis, D., Opiyo, B., Kiage, L.M., 2020. Revisiting the palaeoenvironmental and climatic history of the Cherangani Hills using fungal spores. Journal of Quaternary Science 35, 737–742. https://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.32....
Chevalier, M., Chase, B.M., 2015. Southeast African records reveal a coherent shift from high-to low-latitude forcing mechanisms along the east African margin across last glacial–interglacial transition. Quaternary Science Reviews 125, 117–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quas....
Chevalier, M., Chase, B.M., 2016. Determining the drivers of long-term aridity variability: a southern African case study. Journal of Quaternary Science 31, 143–151. https://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.28....
Chevalier, M., Chase, B.M., Quick, L.J., Scott, L., 2021. An Atlas of Southern African pollen taxa and their climatic affinities. In: Runge, J., Gosling, W.D., Lézine A-M., Scott, L. (eds), Quaternary Vegetation Dynamics: The African Pollen Database. CRC Press/Balkema, The Netherlands, pp. 239–257.
Cilliers, S.S., Bredenkamp, G.J., 1999. Ruderal and degraded natural vegetation on vacant lots in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, North West Province, South Africa. South African Journal of Botany 65(2), 163–173. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0254-....
Cordova, C.E., Scott, L., Chase, B.M., Chevalier, M., 2017. Late pleistocene-holocene vegetation and climate change in the middle kalahari, lake Ngami, Botswana. Quaternary Science Reviews 171, 199–215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quas....
Cordova, C.E., Kirsten, K.L., Scott, L., Meadows, M., Luecke, A., 2019. Multi-proxy evidence of late-Holocene paleoenvironmental change at Princessvlei, South Africa: The effects of fire, herbivores, and humans. Quaternary Science Reviews 221, 105896. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quas....
Coulson, S., Segadika, P., Walker, N., 2016. Ritual in the Hunter-Gatherer/Early Pastoralist Period: Evidence from Tsodilo Hills, Botswana. African Archaeological Review 33, 205–222. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10437....
Crowther, A., Prendergast, M.E., Fuller, D.Q., Boivin, N., 2018. Subsistence mosaics, forager- farmer interactions, and the transition to food production in eastern Africa. Quaternary International 489, 101–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quai....
Cugny, C., Mazier, F., Galop, D., 2010. Modern and fossil non-pollen palynomorphs from the Basque mountains (western Pyrenees, France): the use of coprophilous fungi to reconstruct pastoral activity. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 19, 391–408. https://doi:10.1007/s00334-010....
Davis, O.K., Shafer, D.S., 2006. Sporormiella fungal spores, a palynological means of detecting herbivore density. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 237, 40–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pala....
Deacon, H.J., Deacon, J., Brooker, M., Wilson, M.L., 1978. The evidence for herding at Boomplaas Cave in the southern Cape, South Africa. South African Archaeological Bulletin 33, 39–65. https://doi.org/10.2307/388825....
Denbow, J., 1986. A New Look at the Later Prehistory of the Kalahari. The Journal of African History 27, 3–28. https://doi:10.1017/S002185370....
Denbow, J.R., Wilmsen, E.N., 1986. Advent and course of pastoralism in the Kalahari. Science 234, 1509–1515. https://doi.org/10.1126/scienc....
Dubois, N., Saulnier-Talbot, É., Mills, K., Gell, P., Battarbee, R., Bennion, H., Chawchai, S., Dong, X., Francus, P., Flower, R., 2018. First human impacts and responses of aquatic systems: A review of palaeolimnological records from around the world. The Anthropocene Review 5, 28–68. https://doi.org/10.1177/205301....
Du Plessis, N., 2015. 4000 years of environmental and climate change at Eilandvlei: a palynological investigation into the late Holocene palaeoenvironment of the Wilderness Embayment. Masters thesis, University of Capetown, Capetown.
Dull, R.A., 2004. An 8000-year record of vegetation, climate, and human disturbance from the Sierra de Apaneca, El Salvador. Quaternary Research 61, 159–167. https://doi:10.1016/j.yqres.20....
Edwards, K.J., McIntosh, C.J., 1988. Improving the detection rate of cereal-type pollen grains from Ulmus decline and earlier deposits from Scotland. Pollen et spores 30,179–188.
Eeley, H.A.C., Lawes, M.J., Piper, S.E., 1999. The influence of climate change on the distribution of indigenous forest in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Journal of Biogeography 26, 595–617. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365....
Ehret, C., 2020. The First Spread of Food Production to Southern Africa. In: Ehret, C., Posnansky, M. (eds), The Archaeological and Linguistic Reconstruction of African History. University of California Press, California, pp. 158–181. https://doi.org/10.1525/978052....
Ekblom, A., 2004. Changing landscapes: An environmental history of Chibuene, southern Mozambique, Global Studies in Archaeology 5. Uppsala: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
Ekblom, A., 2008. Forest–savanna dynamics in the coastal lowland of southern Mozambique since c. AD 1400. The Holocene 18, 1247–1257. https://doi.org/10.1177/095968....
Ekblom, A., Risberg, J., Holmgren, K., 2014a. Coastal forest and Miombo woodland history of the Vilankulo region, Mozambique. The Holocene 24, 284–294. https://doi.org/10.1177/095968....
Ekblom, A., Eichhorn, B., Sinclair, P., Badenhorst, S., Berger, A., 2014b. Land use history and resource utilisation from AD 400 to the present, at Chibuene, southern Mozambique. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 23(1), 15–32. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00334....
Ekblom, A., Gillson, L., Notelid, M., 2017. Water flow, ecological dynamics, and management in the lower Limpopo Valley: a long-term view. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water 4, e1228. https://doi.org/10.1002/wat2.1....
Elphick, R., 1977. Kraal and Castle: Khoikhoi and the Founding of Whie South Africa. New Heaven, Connecticut. Yale University Press.
Elphick, R., 1985. Khoikhoi and the founding of white South Africa. Johannesburg. Ravan Press.
Evers, T.M., 1974. Three Iron Age industrial sites in the eastern Transvaal Lowveld. PhD thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
Feely, J.M., Bell-Cross, S.M., 2011. The distribution of early iron age settlement in the Eastern Cape: some historical and ecological implications. South African Archaeological Bulletin 66, 105–112.
Finch, J.M., Hill, T.R., 2008. A late Quaternary pollen sequence from Mfabeni Peatland, South Africa: Reconstructing forest history in Maputaland. Quaternary Research 70, 442–450. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yqre....
Fitchett, J.M., Bamford, M.K., 2017. The validity of the Asteraceae: Poaceae fossil pollen ratio in discrimination of the southern African summer-and winter-rainfall zones. Quaternary Science Reviews 160, 85–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quas....
Fitchett, J.M., Grab, S.W., Bamford, M.K., Mackay, A.W., 2016. A multi-proxy analysis of late Quaternary palaeoenvironments, Sekhokong Range, eastern Lesotho. Journal of Quaternary Science 31, 788–798. https://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.29....
Fuller, D.Q., Hildebrand, E., 2013. Domesticating plants in Africa. In: Mitchell, P., Lane, P. (eds),The Oxford handbook of African Archaeology. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 507–525.
Garlake, P.S., 1982. Prehistory and ideology in Zimbabwe. Africa, 1–19.
Geer, A., 2013. Holocene environmental changes derived from a montane pollen sequence in the KwaZulu-Natal midlands, South Africa. Masters thesis, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg.
Geng, R., Zhao, Y., Cui, Q., Qin, F., 2019. Representation of modern pollen assemblages with respect to vegetation and climate in Northeast China. Quaternary International 532, 126–137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quai....
Gillson, L., Ekblom, A., 2020. Using palaeoecology to explore the resilience of southern African savannas. Koedoe: African Protected Area. Conservation and Science 62, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe....
Gil-Romera, G., Scott, L., Marais, E., Brook, G.A., 2006. Middle-to late-Holocene moisture changes in the desert of northwest Namibia derived from fossil hyrax dung pollen. The Holocene 16, 1073–1084. https://doi.org/10.1177/095968....
Gil-Romera, G., Scott, L., Marais, E., Brook, G.A., 2007. Late Holocene environmental change in the northwestern Namib Desert margin: new fossil pollen evidence from hyrax middens. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 249, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pala....
Goodale, U.M., Ashton, M.S., Berlyn, G.P., Gregoire, T.G., Singhakumara, B.M.P., Tennakoon, K.U., 2012. Disturbance and tropical pioneer species: Patterns of association across life history stages. Forest Ecology and Management 277, 54–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fore....
Govender, N., Trollope, W.S.W., Van Wilgen, B.W., 2006. The effect of fire season, fire frequency, rainfall and management on fire intensity in savanna vegetation in South Africa. Journal of Applied Ecology 43, 748–758. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365....
Grime, J.P., 1979. Plant strategies and vegetation processes. New York. John Wiley and Sons.
Guldemann, T., 2008. A linguist’s view: Khoe-Kwadi speakers as the earliest food-producers of southern Africa. Southern African Humanities 20, 93–132.
Hahn, A., Neumann, F.H., Miller, C., Finch, J., Frankland, T., Cawthra, H.C., Schefuß, E., Zabel, M., 2021. Mid-to Late Holocene climatic and anthropogenic influences in Mpondoland, South Africa. Quaternary Science Reviews 261, 106938. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quas....
Hall, M., 1980. Man’s role in the development of threatened habitats HABCON. Working Document, vol. 5, CSIR, Pretoria.
Hall, M., 1983. Tribes, traditions and numbers: The American model in southern African Iron Age ceramic studies. South African Archaeological Bulletin 38, 51–57. https://doi.org/10.2307/388863....
Hall, M., 1984. Man’s historical and traditional use of fire in southern Africa. In: Booysen, P. de V., Tainton, N.M. (eds), Ecological effects of fire in South African ecosystems. Springer- Verlag, Berlin, pp. 39–52. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-....
Hall, M., Morris, A., 1983. Race and Iron Age human skeletal remains from southern Africa: an assessment. Social Dynamics 9, 29–36. https://doi.org/10.1080/025339....
Henn, B.M., Gignoux, C., Lin, A.A., Oefner, P.J., Shen, P., Scozzari, R., Cruciani, F., Tishkoff, S.A., Mountain, J.L., Underhill, P.A., 2008. Y-chromosomal evidence of a pastoralist migration through Tanzania to southern Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105, 10693–10698. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0....
Henshilwood, C., 1996. A revised chronology for pastoralism in southernmost Africa: new evidence of sheep at c. 2000 bp from Blombos Cave, South Africa. Antiquity 70, 945–949. https://doi.org/10.1017/S00035....
Hogg, A.G., Hua, Q., Blackwell, P.G., Niu, M., Buck, C.E., Guilderson, T.P., Heaton, T.J., Palmer, J.G., Reimer, P.J., Reimer, R.W., 2013. SHCal13 Southern Hemisphere calibration, 0–50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55, 1889–1903. https://doi.org/10.2458/azu_js....
Huffman, T.N., 1970. The Early Iron Age and the spread of the Bantu. South African Archaeological Bulletin 25, 3–21. https://doi.org/10.2307/388876....
Huffman, T.N., 1971. Excavations at Leopard's Kopje Main Kraal: a preliminary report. The South African Archaeological Bulletin, 85–89.
Huffman, T.N., 1979. African origins. South African Journal of Science 75, 233–237.
Huffman, T.N., 1982. Archaeology and ethnohistory of the African Iron Age. Annual Review of Anthropology 11, 133–150. https://doi.org/10.1146/annure....
Huffman, T.N., 1993. Broederstroom and the central cattle pattern. South African Journal of Science 89, 220–226.
Huffman, T.N., 1996. Archaeological evidence for climatic change during the last 2000 years in southern Africa. Quaternary International 33, 55–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/1040-6....
Huffman, T.N., 1998. Presidential address: the antiquity of lobola. South African Archaeological Bulletin 53, 57–62. https://doi.org/10.2307/388918....
Huffman, T.N., 2007. Handbook to the Iron Age. Pietermaritzburg. University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.
Jerardino, A., Fort, J., Isern, N., Rondelli, B., 2014. Cultural diffusion was the main driving mechanism of the Neolithic transition in southern Africa. PloS one 9, e113672. https://doi.org/10.1371/journa....
Johannsmeier, M.F., 2016. Bee plants of South Africa. Sources of nectar, pollen, honeydew and propolis for honeybees. South African National Biodiversity Institute.
Jordaan, G., 2017. An archaeological study of two Early Farming sites in the southern Kruger National Park, South Africa: Masters thesis. University of Pretoria, Pretoria.
Katsamudanga, S., Pwiti, G., 2017. Chronology of Early Farming Communities of northern Zimbabwe: a Reappraisal. In: Manyanga, M., Chirikure, S. (eds), Archives, Objects, Places and Landscapes: Multidisciplinary approaches to Decolonized Zimbabwean pasts. Langaa Research and Publishing CIG, Bamenda, Cameroon, pp. 119–136.
Kinahan, J., 2005. The late Holocene human ecology of the Namib Desert. M. Smith & P. Hesse (eds.) 23, 120–131.
Kjellmark, E., 1996. Late Holocene climate change and human disturbance on Andros Island, Bahamas. Journal of Paleolimnology 15, 133–145. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF0019....
Klapwijk, M., 1974. A preliminary report on pottery from the north-eastern Transvaal, South Africa. South African Archaeological Bulletin 29, 19–23. https://doi.org/10.2307/388793....
Klapwijk, M., Huffman, T., 1996. Excavations at Silver Leaves: A preliminary report. South African Archaeological Bulletin 51, 84–93.
Klein, R.G., 1986. The prehistory of Stone Age herders in the Cape Province of South Africa. South African Archaeological Bulletin Goodwin Series 5, 5–12. https://doi.org/10.2307/385814....
Lander, F., Russell, T., 2018. The Archaeological evidence for the appearance of Pastoralism and Farming in southern Africa. PloS ONE 13(6), e0198941. https://doi.org/10.1371/journa....
Lander, F., Russell, T., 2020. A southern African archaeological database of organic containers and materials, 800 cal BC to cal AD 1500: Possible implications for the transition from foraging to livestock-keeping. PLoS ONE 15, e0235226. https://doi:10.1371/journal.po....
Lane, P., 2004. The ‘moving frontier’and the transition to food production in Kenya. Azania: Journal of the British Institute in Eastern Africa 39, 243–264. https://doi.org/10.1080/006727....
Lebamba, J., Vincens, A., Lézine, A-M., Marchant, R., Buchet, G., 2016. Forest-savannah dynamics on the Adamawa plateau (Central Cameroon) during the “African humid period” termination: A new high-resolution pollen record from Lake Tizong. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 235, 129–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revp....
Lenssen-Erz, T., Vogelsang, R., 2005. Populating No-Man’s-Land: Rock art in northern Namibia. South African Archaeological Bulletin Goodwin Series 9, 54–62.
Li, S., Schlebusch, C., Jakobsson, M., 2014. Genetic variation reveals large-scale population expansion and migration during the expansion of Bantu-speaking peoples. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 281, 20141448. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2....
Li, Y., Zhou, L., Cui, H., 2008. Pollen indicators of human activity. Chinese Science Bulletin 53, 1281–1293. https:// doi:10.1007/s11434-008-0181-0.
Lim, S., Chase, B.M., Chevalier, M., Reimer, P.J., 2016. 50,000 years of vegetation and climate change in the southern Namib Desert, Pella, South Africa. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 451, 197–209. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pala....
MacDevette, D.R., MacDevette, D.K., Gordon, I.G., Bartholomew, R.L.C., 1989. Floristics of the Natal indigenous forests. In: Geldenhuys, C.J. (ed.), Biogeography of the Mixed Evergreen Forests of southern Africa. Foundation of Research Development, Pretoria, pp. 124–145.
Madiquida, H., 2006. The Iron Age communities in the Zambezi river basin: excavations in Mozambique. SAFA 23–26 June, 2006, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Maggs, T., 1980a. The Iron Age Sequence South of the Vaal and Pongola Rivers: some Historical Implications. The Journal of African History 21, 1–15. https://doi:10.1017/S002185370....
Maggs, T., 1980b. Mzonjani and the beginning of the Iron Age in Natal. Annals of the Natal Museum 24, 71–96.
Maggs, T., 1984. The Iron Age south of the Zambezi. In: Klein, R.G. (ed.), Southern African Prehistory and Palaeoenvironments. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 329–361.
Maggs, T., 1994. The Early Iron Age in the extreme south: some patterns and problems. Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa 29, 168–178. https://doi.org/10.1080/006727....
Maggs, T., Ward, V., 1984. Early Iron Age sites in the Muden area of Natal. Annals of the Natal Museum 26, 105–140.
Maggs, T., Whitelaw, G., 1991. A review of recent archaeological research on food-producing communities in southern Africa. The Journal of African History 32, 3–24. https://doi.org/10.1017/S00218....
Marais, E., Scott, L., Gil-Romera, G., Carrión, J.S., 2015. The potential of palynology in fossil bat-dung from Arnhem Cave, Namibia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 70, 109–115. https://doi.org/10.1080/003591....
Marker, M.E., Evers, T.M., 1976. Iron Age Settlement and Soil Erosion in the Eastern Transvaal, South Africa. South African Archaeological Bulletin 31, 153–165. https://doi:10.2307/3887737.
Marks, S.J., Montinaro, F., Levy, H., Brisighelli, F., Ferri, G., Bertoncini, S., Batini, C., Busby, G.B.J., Arthur, C., Mitchell, P., 2015. Static and moving frontiers: the genetic landscape of Southern African Bantu-speaking populations. Molecular Biology and Evolution 32, 29–43. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev....
Mason, R., 1981. Early Iron Age settlement at Broederstroom 24/73, Transvaal, South Africa. South African Journal of Science 77, 401–416.
Mason, R.J, 1986. Origins of Black People of Johannesburg and the Southern Western Central Transvaal, AD 350–1880 (Occasional Paper 16). University of the Witwatersrand Archaeological Research Unit, Johannesburg.
Mazel, A.D., 1989. People making history: the last ten thousand years of hunter-gatherer communities in the Thukela Basin. Southern African Humanities 1, 1–168.
Mazel, A.D., 1992. Collingham Shelter: the excavation of late Holocene deposits, Natal, South Africa. Southern African Humanities 4, 1–51.
Mazel, A.D., 2022. Mountain living: The Holocene people of the uKhahlamba-Drakensberg, South Africa. Quaternary International 611–612, 190–210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quai....
McCann, J., 2001. Maize and Grace: History, corn, and Africa’s new landscapes, 1500–1999. Comparative Studies in Society and History 43, 246–272. https://doi.org/10.1017/S00104....
McWethy, D.B., Neumann, F.H., Steinbruch, F., Ryan, C.M., Valsecchi, V., 2016. Late Quaternary vegetation development and disturbance dynamics from a peatland on Mount Gorongosa, central Mozambique. Quaternary Science Reviews 137, 221–233. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quas....
Meadows, M.E., Baxter, A.J., 2001. Holocene vegetation history and palaeoenvironments at Klaarfontein Springs, Western Cape, South Africa. The Holocene 11, 699–706. https://doi.org/10.1191/095968....
Meadows, M.E., Sugden, J.M., 1991. A vegetation history of the last 14 000 years on the Cederberg, south-western Cape Province. South African Journal of Science 87, 34–43.
Meadows, M.E., Chase, B.M., Seliane, M., 2010. Holocene palaeoenvironments of the Cederberg and Swartruggens mountains, Western Cape, South Africa: pollen and stable isotope evidence from hyrax dung middens. Journal of Arid Environments 74, 786–793. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jari....
Mercader, J., Sillé, P., 2013. Middle and later stoneage sites from Sofala, Gorongosa (Central Mozambique). Nyame akuma 80, 1–13.
Meyer, A., 1986. ‘N Kultuurhistoriese interpretasie van die ystertydperk in die Nasionale Krugerwildtuin. PhD thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria.
Miller, D., Whitelaw, G., 1994. Early Iron Age metal working from the site of KwaGandaganda, Natal, South Africa. South African Archaeological Bulletin 49, 79–89. https://doi.org/10.2307/388922....
Miracle, M.P., 1965. The introduction and spread of maize in Africa. Journal of African History 6(1), 39–55.
Mitchell, P., 2002. The Archaeology of southern Africa. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.
Mitchell, P., 2005. African connections: Archaeological perspectives on Africa and the wider world. Lanham, Maryland. Rowman Altamira press.
Mitchell, P., Whitelaw, G., 2005. The Archaeology of Southernmost Africa from c. 2000 BP to the Early 1800s: A Review of Recent Research. Journal of African History 46, 209–241. https://doi.org/10.1017/S00218....
Mitchell, P.J., 1996. Sehonghong: the late Holocene assemblages with pottery. South African Archaeological Bulletin 51, 17–25. https://doi.org/10.2307/388892....
Moore, M.P.J., 1981. The Iron age of the Makapan valley area, Central Transvaal. Masters Thesis, Univerisity of the Witwatesrand, Johannesburg.
Morais, J.M., 1988. The Early Farming Communities of Southern Mozambique. Studies in African Archaeology 3, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
Mucina, L., Rutherford, M., 2006. The vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Strelitzia 19, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, South Africa.
Muigai, A.W.T., Hanotte, O., 2013. The Origin of African sheep: Archaeological and Genetic perspectives. African Archaeological Review 30, 39–50. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10437....
Muller, K., O’Connor, T.G., Henschel, J.R., 2016. Impact of a severe frost event in 2014 on woody vegetation within the Nama-Karoo and semi-arid savanna biomes of South Africa. Journal of Arid Environments 133, 112–121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jari....
Muller, M., Siebert, S.J., Ntloko, B.R., Siebert, F., 2021. ‘A floristic assessment of grassland diversity loss in South Africa’, Bothalia-African Biodiversity and Conservation 51(1), 1–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.38201/bth....
Mvelase, S., 2021. Palaeoenvironments at the Shashe-Limpopo Confluence Area from 1000 to 1220 AD: Palynological Analysis of Cattle Dung Samples. BSc Honours Thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
Nash, D.J., Meadows, M.E., Gulliver, V.L., 2006. Holocene environmental change in the Okavango Panhandle, northwest Botswana. Quaternary Science Reviews 25, 1302–1322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quas....
Neary, D.G., Leonard, J.M., 2020. Effects of Fire on Grassland Soils and Water: A Review. In: Kindomihou, V.M. , editor. Grasses and Grassland Aspects [Internet]. London: IntechOpen;[cited 2022 Apr 28]. Available from: https://www.intechopen.com/cha... doi: 10.5772/intechopen.90747.
Neumann, F.H., Botha, G.A., Scott, L., 2014. 18,000 years of grassland evolution in the summer rainfall region of South Africa: evidence from Mahwaqa Mountain, KwaZulu-Natal. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 23, 665–681. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00334....
Neumann, F.H., Scott, L., Bamford, M., 2011. Climate change and human disturbance of fynbos vegetation during the late Holocene at Princess Vlei, Western Cape, South Africa. The Holocene 21, 1137–1149. https://doi.org/10.1177/095968....
Neumann, F.H., Scott, L., Bousman, C., Van As, L., 2010. A Holocene sequence of vegetation change at Lake Eteza, coastal KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 162, 39–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revp....
Neumann, F.H., Stager, J.C., Scott, L., Venter, H.J., Weyhenmeyer, C., 2008. Holocene vegetation and climate records from lake Sibaya, KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 152, 113–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revp....
Nkala, P., Mango, N.A.R., Corbeels, M., Veldwisch, G.J.A., Huising, E.J., 2011. The conundrum of conservation agriculture and livelihoods in Southern Africa. African Journal of Agricultural Research 6(24), 5520–5528.
Nyakale, M., 1999. Palynology of Late Quaternary deposits from the central plateau, South Africa: Masters thesis. University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein.
O’Connor, T.G., van Wilgen, B.W., 2020. The Impact of Invasive Alien Plants on Rangelands in South Africa. In van Wilgen, B.W., Measey, J., Richardson, D.M., Wilson, J.R., Zengeya, T.A. (eds), Biological Invasions in South Africa. Springer, Switzerland, pp. 459–487. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-....
Orton, J.D.J., 2013. Late Holocene archaeology in Namaqualand, South Africa: hunter-gatherers and herders in a semi-arid environment. PhD thesis, University of Oxford, Oxford.
Orton J.D.J., Mitchell, P., Klein, R., Steele, T., Horsburgh, K.A., 2013. An early date for cattle from Namaqualand, South Africa: implications for the origins of herding in southern Africa. Antiquity 87, 108–120. https://doi.org/10.1017/S00035....
Orton, J.D.J., 2015. The Introduction of Pastoralism to southernmost Africa: thoughts on new contributions to an ongoing debate. Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa 50, 250–258. https://doi:10.1080/0067270X.2....
Parkington, J., 1977. Soaqua: hunter-fisher-gatherers of the Olifants river valley western Cape. South African Archaeological Bulletin 32, 150–157. https://doi.org/10.2307/388866....
Parkington, J., Hall, S., 2010. The appearance of food production in southern Africa 1,000 to 2,000 years ago. The Cambridge History of South Africa 1, 63–111. https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL97....
Parkington, J., Poggenpoel, C., 1987. Diepkloof Rock Shelter. In: Parkington, J., Hall, M. (eds) Papers in the Prehistory of the Western Cape, South Africa. British Archaeological Reports International Series 332(ii), pp. 269–293.
Partridge, T., 1966. Ficus Cave: an Iron Age living site in the central Transvaal. South African Archaeological Bulletin 21, 125–132. https://doi.org/10.2307/388843....
Phillipson, D.W., 1976. Archaeology and Bantu linguistics. World Archaeology 8, 65–82. https://doi.org/10.1080/004382....
Phillipson, D.W., 1977. The later prehistory of eastern and southern Africa. New York. Africana Pub. Co.
Phillipson, D.W., 2005. African archaeology. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. Pleurdeau, D., Imalwa, E., Détroit, F., Lesur, J., Veldman, A., Bahain, J-J., Marais, E., 2012. “Of sheep and men”: earliest direct evidence of caprine domestication in southern Africa at Leopard Cave (Erongo, Namibia). PloS One 7: e40340. https://doi.org/10.1371/journa....
Pleurdeau, D., Imalwa, E., Détroit, F., Lesur, J., Veldman, A., Bahain, J-J., Marais, E., 2012. “Ofsheep and men”: earliest direct evidence of caprine domestication in southern Africa at Leopard Cave (Erongo, Namibia). PLoS ONE 7: e40340.
Prendergast, M.E., 2011. Hunters and herders at the periphery: The spread of herding in eastern Africa. In: Jousse, H., Lesur, J. (eds), People and Animals in Holocene Africa: Recent Advances in Archaeozoology. Africa Magna Verlag, Frankfurt, pp. 43–58.
Pwiti, G., 1996. Settlement and subsistence of prehistoric farming communities in the mid- Zambezi valley, Northern Zimbabwe. The South African Archaeological Bulletin 51, 3–6. https://doi.org/10.2307/388892....
Quick, L., 2009. Late quaternary vegetation history and palaeoenvironments of the Cederberg Mountains, South Africa: evidence from hyrax (Procavia capensis) middens. Masters Thesis, University of Capetown, Capetown.
Quick, L.J., Carr, A.S., Meadows, M.E., Boom, A., Bateman, M.D., Roberts, D.L., Reimer, P.J., Chase, B.M., 2015. A late Pleistocene–Holocene multi-proxy record of palaeoenvironmental change from Still Bay, southern Cape Coast, South Africa. Journal of Quaternary Science 30, 870–885. https://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.28....
Quick, L.J., Chase, B.M., Meadows, M.E., Scott, L., Reimer, P.J., 2011. A 19.5 kyr vegetation history from the central Cederberg Mountains, South Africa: palynological evidence from rock hyrax middens. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 309, 253–270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pala....
Ranciaro, A., Campbell, M.C., Hirbo, J.B., Ko, W.Y., Froment, A., Anagnostou, P., Kotze, M.J., Ibrahim, M., Nyambo, T., Omar, S.A., 2014. Genetic origins of lactase persistence and the spread of pastoralism in Africa. The American Journal of Human Genetics 94, 496–510. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg....
Robbins, L.H., Campbell, A.C., Murphy, M.L., Brook, G.A., Liang, F., Skaggs, S.A., Srivastava, P., Mabuse, A.A., Badenhorst, S., 2008. Recent archaeological research at Toteng, Botswana: early domesticated livestock in the Kalahari. Journal of African Archaeology 6, 131–149. https://doi.org/10.3213/1612-1....
Robertson, J.H., 2000. Early Iron Age archaeology in central Zambia. Azania: Journal of the British Institute in Eastern Africa 35, 147–182. https://doi.org/10.1080/006727....
Robinson, K.R., 1966. The Leopard's Kopje culture, its position in the Iron Age of Southern Rhodesia. The South African Archaeological Bulletin 21, 5–51.
Roos, C.I., Field, J.S., Dudgeon, J.V., 2016. Anthropogenic burning, agricultural intensification, and landscape transformation in Post-Lapita Fiji. Journal of Ethnobiology 36, 535–553. https://doi.org/10.2993/0278-0....
Rosen, D.Z., Lewis, C.A., Illgner, P.M., 1999. Palaeoclimatic and archaeological implications of organic-rich sediments at Tifftidell Ski Resort, near Rhodes, eastern Cape province, south Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 54, 311–321. https://doi.org/10.1080/003591....
Rotunno, R., Mercuri, A.M., Florenzano, A., Zerboni, A., di Lernia, S., 2020. The Visibility of Mobility: Coprolites, Dung and Neolithic Herders in Central Saharan Rock Shelters Environmental Archaeology, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/146141....
Russell, T., Silva, F., Steele, J., 2014. Modelling the spread of farming in the Bantu-speaking regions of Africa: an archaeology-based phylogeography. PLoS ONE 9(1), e87854. https://doi:10.1371/journal.po....
Rutherford, M.C., Westfall, R.H., 1994. Biomes of southern Africa: an objective categorization. Memoirs of the Botanical Survey of South Africa 63, 1–94.
Sadr, K., 2008. Invisible herders? The archaeology of Khoekhoe pastoralists. Southern African Humanities 20, 179–203.
Sadr, K., 2014. Radiocarbon dates, stone tools and the origin of herding on the West Coast of South Africa. Frankfurt. Africa Magna Verlag.
Sadr, K., 2015. Livestock first reached southern Africa in two separate events. PloS ONE 10, e0134215. https://doi.org/10.1371/journa....
Sadr, K., 2019. The ‘Neolithic’ Concept in South Africa. South African Archaeological Bulletin Goodwin Series 12, 69–71.
Sadr, K., 2020. The Archaeology of Highveld Farming Communities. In: Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefo....
Sadr, K., Sampson, C.G., 2006. Through thick and thin: early pottery in southern Africa. Journal of African Archaeology 4, 235–252. https://doi.org/10.3213/1612-1....
Sandelowsky, B.H., 1977. Mirabib-an archaeological study in the Namib. Madoqua, 221–253.
Sarwat, M., Das, S., Srivastava, P.S., 2008. Analysis of genetic diversity through AFLP, SAMPL, ISSR and RAPD markers in Tribulus terrestris, a medicinal herb. Plant Cell Reports 27, 519–528. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00299....
Schweitzer, F.R., 1974. Archaeological evidence for sheep at the Cape. South African Archaeological Bulletin 29, 75–82. https://doi.org/10.2307/388833....
Schweitzer, F.R., Wilson, M.L., 1982. Byneskranskop 1: a late Quaternary living site in the southern Cape Province, South Africa. Annals of the South African Museum 88, 1–203.
Scott, C., 2005. Analysis and interpretation of botanical remains from Sibudu Cave, Kwazulu Natal. Masters Thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
Scott, J.K., Morrison, S.M., 1996. Variation in populations of Tribulus terrestris (Zygophyllaceae). 1. Burr morphology. Australian Journal of Botany 44, 175–190. https://doi.org/10.1071/BT9960....
Scott, K., Plug, I., 2016. Osteomorphology and osteometry versus aDNA in taxonomic identification of fragmentary sheep and sheep/goat bones from archaeological deposits: Blydefontein Shelter, Karoo, South Africa. Southern African Humanities 28, 61–79.
Scott, L., 1982a. A Late Quaternary pollen record from the Transvaal bushveld, South Africa. Quaternary Research 17, 339–370. https://doi.org/10.1016/0033-5....
Scott, L., 1982b. Late Quaternary fossil pollen grains from the Transvaal, South Africa. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 36, 241–278. https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-6....
Scott, L., 1982c. A 5000-year old pollen record from spring deposits in the bushveld at the north of the Soutpansberg, South Africa. Palaeoecology of Africa 14, 45–55.
Scott, L., 1984. Reconstruction of Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments in the Transvaal on the basis of palynological evidence. In: Vogel, J.C. (ed.), Late Cainozoic Palaeoclimates of the Southern Hemisphere. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 317–327.
Scott, L., 1987. Late Quaternary forest history in Venda, southern Africa. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 53, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-6....
Scott, L., 1988. Holocene environmental change at western Orange Free State pans, South Africa, inferred from pollen analysis. Palaeoecology of Africa 19, 109–118.
Scott, L., 1996. Palynology of hyrax middens: 2000 years of palaeoenvironmental history in Namibia. Quaternary International 33, 73–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/1040-6....
Scott, L., 1999. Palynological analysis of the Pretoria Saltpan (Tswaing Crater) sediments and vegetation history in the bushveld savanna biome, South Africa. In: Partridge, T.C. (ed.) Tswaing- investigations into the Origin, Age and Palaeoenvironments of the Pretoria Saltpan. Council for Geosciences, Pretoria, pp. 143–166.
Scott, L., 2002. Microscopic charcoal in sediments: Quaternary fire history of the grassland and savanna regions in South Africa. Journal of Quaternary Science 17, 77–86. https://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.64....
Scott, L., 2016. Fluctuations of vegetation and climate over the last 75 000 years in the Savanna Biome, South Africa: Tswaing Crater and Wonderkrater pollen sequences reviewed. Quaternary Science Reviews 145, 117–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quas....
Scott, L., Nyakale, M., 2002. Pollen indications of Holocene palaeoenvironments at Florisbad spring in the central Free State, South Africa. The Holocene 12, 497–503. https://doi.org/10.1191/095968....
Scott, L., Thackeray, J.F., 1987. Multivariate analysis of late Pleistocene and Holocene pollen spectra from Wonderkrater, Transvaal, South Africa. South African Journal of Science 83, 93–98.
Scott, L., Vogel, J.C., 1983. Late Quaternary pollen profile from the Transvaal highveld South Africa. South African Journal of Science 79, 266–272.
Scott, L., Woodborne, S., 2007. Vegetation history inferred from pollen in Late Quaternary faecal deposits (hyraceum) in the Cape winter-rain region and its bearing on past climates in South Africa. Quaternary Science Reviews 26, 941–953. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quas....
Scott, L., Bousman, C.B., Nyakale, M., 2005. Holocene pollen from swamp, cave and hyrax dung deposits at Blydefontein (Kikvorsberge), Karoo, South Africa. Quaternary International 129, 49–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quai....
Scott, L., Cooremans, B., De Wet, J.S., Vogel, J.C., 1991. Holocene environmental changes in Namibia inferred from pollen analysis of swamp and lake deposits. The Holocene 1, 8–13. https://doi.org/10.1177/095968....
Scott, L., Holmgren, K., Talma, A.S., Woodborne, S., Vogel, J.C., 2003. Age interpretation of the Wonderkrater spring sediments and vegetation change in the Savanna Biome, Limpopo province, South Africa. South African Journal of Science 99, 484–488.
Scott, L., Neumann, F.H., Brook, G.A., Bousman, C.B., Norström, E., Metwally, A., 2012. Terrestrial fossil-pollen evidence of climate change during the last 26 thousand years in Southern Africa. Quaternary Science Reviews 32, 100–118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quas....
Scott, L., Romera, G.G., Marais, E., Brook, G.A., 2018. Pollen in fossil hyrax dung from Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3 reveals past environments in Namibia. Quaternary International 464, 260–272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quai....
Scott, L., Sobol, M., Neumann, F.H., Gil Romera, G., Fernandez-Jalvo, Y., Bousman, C.B., Horwitz, L.K., van Aardt, A.C., 2022. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments in the central semi-arid region of South Africa from pollen in cave, pan, spring, stream and dung deposits. Quaternary International 614, 84–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quai....
Sebata, A., Ngongoni, N.T., Mupangwa, J.F., Nyakudya, I.W., Dube, J.S., 2005. Chemical composition and degradation characteristics of puncture vine (Tribulus terrestris). Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems 5, 85–89.
Shi, N., Dupont, L.M., Beug, H-J., Schneider, R., 1998. Vegetation and climate changes during the last 21 000 years in SW Africa based on a marine pollen record. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 7, 127–140. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF0137....
Sinclair, P.J., 1982. Chibuene – an early trading site in southern Mozambique. Paideuma 28, 159–164.
Sinclair, P.J., 1987. Space, time and social formation: a territorial approach to the archaeology and anthropology of Zimbabwe and Mozambique c 0–1700 AD. Societas Archaeologica Upsaliensis, Uppsala.
Sinclair, P.J., Nydolf, N-G., Wickman-Nydolf, G., 1987. Excavations at the University Campus, Maputo, Mozambique, 1984–85. Studies in African Archaeology 1. Maputo and Stockholm: Eduardo Mondlane University and the Central Board of National Antiquities.
Sjöström, J., Norström, E., Risberg, J., Schoeman, M.H., 2017. Late Holocene palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from Mpumalanga Province (South Africa) inferred from geochemical and biogenic proxies. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 246, 264–277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revp....
Skead, C.J., 1980. Historical mammal incidence in the Cape Province. Department of Nature and Environmental Conservation of the Provincial Administration of the Cape of Good Hope, Cape Town, pp. 11–17.
Smith, A.B., 1987. Seasonal exploitation of resources on the Vredenburg Peninsula after 2000 BP. In: Parkington, J.E., Hall, M. (eds), Papers in the Prehistory of the Western Cape, South Africa. British Archaeological Reports International Series 332, Oxford, pp. 393–402.
Smith, A.B., 1992. Pastoralism in Africa. Origins and Development Ecology. Hurst and Company, Ohio University Press/Witwatersrand University Press, London/Athens/Johannesburg.
Smith, A.B., 2008. Pastoral origins at the Cape, South Africa: influences and arguments. Southern African Humanities 20, 49–60.
Smith, A.B., 2017. Why would southern African hunters be reluctant food producers. Hunter Gatherer Research 2, 415–435. https://doi.org/10.3828/hgr.20....
Staver, A.C., Bond, W.J., Stock, W.D., Van Rensburg, S.J., Waldram, M.S., 2009. Browsing and fire interact to suppress tree density in an African savanna. Ecological Applications 19, 1909–1919. https://doi.org/10.1890/08-190....
Tabares, X., Mapani, B., Blaum, N., Herzschuh, U., 2018. Composition and diversity of vegetation and pollen spectra along gradients of grazing intensity and precipitation in southern Africa. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 253, 88–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revp....
Tomlinson, R.W., 1973. The Inyanga Area: An Essay in Regional Biogeography. University of Rhodesis Ocassional Paper 1, 1–67.
Turner, S., Plater, A., 2004. Palynological evidence for the origin and development of late Holocene wetland sediments: Mdlanzi Swamp, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. South African Journal of Science 100, 220–229.
Tyson, P.D., Preston-Whyte, R.A., 2000. Weather and climate of southern Africa. Cape Town. Oxford University Press.
Valsecchi, V., Chase, B.M., Slingsby, J.A., Carr, A.S., Quick, L.J., Meadows, M.E., Cheddadi, R., Reimer, P.J., 2013. A high resolution 15,600-year pollen and microcharcoal record from the Cederberg Mountains, South Africa. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 387, 6–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pala....
Van Asperen, E.N., Kirby, J.R., Shaw, H.E., 2020. Relating dung fungal spore influx rates to animal density in a temperate environment: implications for palaeoecological studies. The Holocene 30, 218–232. https://doi.org/10.1177/095968....
Van Valkenburg, J.L.C.H., Ketner, P., 1994. Vegetation changes following human disturbance of mid-montane forest in the Wau area, Papua New Guinea. Journal of Tropical Ecology 10, 41–54. https://doi.org/10.1017/s02664....
Verdú, A.M.C., Mas, M.T., 2006. Cohort-dependent seedling recruitment, survival and reproductive capacity of Tribulus terrestris. Weed Research 46, 371–378. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365....
Vogelsang, R., Eichhorn, B., Richter, J., 2002. Holocene human occupation and vegetation history in northern Namibia. Die Erde 133, 113–132.
Voigt, E.A., 1980. Reconstructing Iron Age economies of the northern Transvaal: a preliminary report. The South African Archaeological Bulletin, 39–45.
Voigt, E.A., 1984. The faunal remains from Magogo and Mhlopeni: small stock herding in the Early Iron Age of Natal. Annals of the Natal Museum 26, 141–163.
Wadley, L., 1978. Later Stone Age hunters and gatherers of the southern Transvaal: social and ecological interpretation (Vol. 25). British Archaeological Reports.
Wadley, L., 1996. Changes in the social relations of precolonial hunter–gatherers after agropastoralist contact: an example from the Magaliesberg, South Africa. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 15(2), 205–217. https://doi.org/10.1006/jaar.1....
Walther, S.C., Neumann, F.H., 2011. Sedimentology, isotopes and palynology of late Holocene cores from Lake Sibaya and the Kosi Bay system (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa). South African Geographical Journal 93, 133–153. https://doi.org/10.1080/037362....
Wang, K., Goldstein, S., Bleasdale M., Clist, B., Bostoen, K., Bakwa-Lufu, P., Buck, L.T., Crowther, A., Dème, A., McIntosh, R.J., 2020. Ancient genomes reveal complex patterns of population movement, interaction, and replacement in sub-Saharan Africa. Science Advances 6(24), eaaz0183. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv....
Wei, H., Zhao, Y., 2016. Surface pollen and its relationships with modern vegetation and climate in the Tianshan Mountains, northwestern China. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 25, 19–27. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00334....
Whittington, G., Edwards, K.J., Caseldine, C.J., 1991. Late-and post-glacial pollen-analytical and environmental data from a near-coastal site in north-east Fife, Scotland. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 68, 65–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-6....
Whitelaw, G., 1991. Precolonial iron production around Durban and in southern Natal. Southern African Humanities 3, 29–39.
Whitelaw, G., 1994. KwaGandaganda: settlement patterns in the Natal Early Iron Age. Southern African Humanities 6, 1–64.
Whitelaw, G., Moon, M., 1996. The distribution and ceramics of pioneer agriculturists in KwaZulu-Natal Natal Museum. Journal of Humanities 8, 53–79.
Wood, E.T., Stover, D.A., Ehret, C., Destro-Bisol, G., Spedini, G., McLeod, H., Louie, L., Bamshad, M., Strassmann, B.I., Soodyall, H., 2005. Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa: evidence for sex-biased demographic processes. European Journal of Human Genetics 13, 867–876. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejh....
Young, R., Thompson, G., 1999. Missing plant foods? Where is the archaeobotanical evidence for sorghum and finger millet in East Africa? In: van der Veen, M. (ed.), The exploitation of plant resources in Ancient Africa. Plenum/Kluwer, New York, pp. 63–72. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-....
Earth, Water, Air, and Fire – Thinking about Farming and Farmscapes
Alexa Höhn, Emmanuel Mushayikwa, Alex Schoeman
African Archaeological Review
Modern pollen- and phytolith-vegetation relationships at a wetland in northeastern South Africa
J.O. Olatoyan, F.H. Neumann, E.A. Orijemie, C. Sievers, M. Evans, T. Hattingh, M.H. Schoeman
South African Journal of Botany
Multi-purpose pots: Reconstructing early farmer behaviour at Lydenburg Heads site, South Africa, using organic residue analysis
Julia Becher, Alex Schoeman, Gavin Whitelaw, Stephen Buckley, Jean-Pierre Celliers, Sara Cafisso, Matthias Belser, Maxime Rageot, Cynthianne Spiteri
Journal of Archaeological Science
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top