• A new fossil flower of Cannabaceae as evidence of the Boreotropical Floral in the Miocene of Mexico
  • Identification of a flower of Aphananthe (Cannabaceae) preserved in the Mexican amber using micro-CT
  • A new extinct member of the Urticalean Rosids clade preserved in the Miocene of Simojovel de Allende, Chiapas, Mexico
Cannabaceae (Urticalean Rosids clade) is a small family with ten genera and a wide distribution in tropical and temperate regions worldwide. A complete understanding of the history of the lineage is fundamental to the integration of its fossil record, which needs to be better documented in low latitudes of North America. This work recognizes a new species, Aphananthe manchesteri Hernández-Damián, Rubalcava-Knoth et Cevallos- Ferriz sp. nov. (Cannabaceae), from the Miocene amber deposits of Simojovel de Allende, Chiapas, Mexico, based on a flower analyzed with reflected light and CT-scanning. Flowers of Cannabaceae are generally staminate or pistillate and small; staminate flowers have five sepals and opposite five stamens, and a pubescent pistillode, such as the fossil. However, the presence of three unguiculate and two ovate sepals with a puberulent surface are characteristics that allow its recognition as Aphananthe, the fossil is morphologically similar to Aphananthe monoica, an extant species that grows along the Pacific coast of Mexico. The presence of Aphananthe manchesteri sp. nov. in southern Mexico during the middle-early Miocene, ~23–15 Ma ago, supports the history of the lineage in lowlatitude North America, representing an expansion of the Boreotropical Flora. It adds to the taxonomical diversity of angiosperms preserved in Mexican amber, comparable with amber deposits from the Dominican Republic, where another anemophilous extinct species member of the Urticalean Rosids clade has been reported. This coincidence further supports the development of similar plant communities between these fossiliferous localities.
Allison, R.C., 1967. The Cenozoic Stratigraphy of Chiapas, Mexico, with discussions of the Classification of the Turritellidae and Selected Mexican Representatives (Ph.D. Thesis) at the University of California, Berkeley.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification of the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181, 1–20.
Avendaño-Gil, J., Carbot-Chanona, G., Coutiño, J.M.A., 2012. Estudio del ámbar con inclusiones biológicas de la Colección Paleontológica de la Secretaría de Medio Ambiente e Historia Natural, Chiapas, México. Lacandonia 6, 23–29.
Bechtel, A.R., 1921. The floral anatomy of the Urticales. American Journal of Botany 8, 386–410. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1537....
Berg, C.C., 1990. Differentiation of flowers and inflorescences of Urticales in relation to their protection against breeding insects and to pollination. Sonunerfeltia 11, 13–34.
Calvillo-Canadell, L., Cevallos-Ferriz, S.R.S., Rico-Arce, L., 2010. Miocene Hymenaea flowers preserved in amber from Simojovel de Allende, Chiapas, Mexico. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 160, 126–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revp....
Cevallos-Ferriz, S.R.S., González-Torres, E., 2006. Geological setting and phytodiversity in Mexico. In: Vega, F.J., Perrilliat, M.C., Montellano-Ballesteros, M., Cevallos-Ferriz, S.R.S., Barroso, S.A. (eds), Studies on Mexican Paleontology, Topics in Geobiology, vol. 24. Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp. 1–18.
Cevallos-Ferriz, S.R.S., González-Torres, E.A., Calvillo Canadell, L., 2012. Perspectiva paleobotánica y geológica de la biodiversidad en México. Acta Botánica Mexicana 100, 137–150.
Chambers, K.L., Poinar, G.O. Jr., 2015. Comopellis presbya (Rhamnaceae) gen. et sp. nov. in mid-Tertiary amber from the Dominican Republic. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 9, 361–367.
Chambers, K.L., Poinar, G.O. Jr., 2016. Lobocyclas anomala, a new genus and species of Celastraceae subfamily Hippocrateoideae in Dominican amber. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10, 137–140.
Chernik, V.V., 1975. Arrangement and reduction of perianth and androecium parts in representatives of the Ul-maceae Mirbel and Celtidaceae Link. Botanicheskii Zhurnal 60, 1561–1573.
Choi, S., Kim, K., Jeong, E., Terada, K., Suzuki, M., Uematsu, H., 2010. Fossil woods from the Miocene in the Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. International Association of Wood Anatomists 31, 95–117.
Collinson, M.E., Manchester, S.R., Wilde, V., 2012. Fossil Fruits and Seeds of the Middle Eocene Messel biota, Germany. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Gesellschaft Naturforschenden 570, 1–249.
Cronquist, A., 1981. An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. Columbia University Press, New York.
Dorofeev, P., 1982. Species determined from fruits. Celtis and Aphananthe. In: Takhtajan, A., Zhilin, S. (eds), Fossil flowering plants of the URSS, vol. 2 Ulmaceae-Betulaceae. Nauka, Lenningrad, pp. 22–24 (In Russian).
Dragonfly 2020.2 [Computer software]. Object Research Systems (ORS) Inc, Montreal, Canada, 2020; software available at http://www.theobjects.com/drag....
Friis, E., Crane, P., Pedersen, K., 2011. Early Flowers and Angiosperm Evolution. Cambridge, Cambridge Univer-sity Press.
Fu, L., Xin, Y., Whittemore, A., 2003. Ulmaceae Mirbel. Flora of China 5, 1–19.
Graham, A., 1999. Studies in Neotropical Paleobotany. XIII. An Oligo-Miocene Palynoflora from Simojovel (Chiapas, Mexico). American Journal of Botany 86(1), 17–31.
Hernández-Damián, A.L., Gómez-Acevedo, S.L., Cevallos-Ferriz, S.R.S., 2018. Fossil flower of Salacia lombardii sp. nov. (Salacioideae-Celastraceae) preserved in amber from Simojovel de Allende, Mexico. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 252, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revp....
Hernández-Hernández, M. de J., Castañeda-Posadas, C., 2018. Gouania miocenica sp. nov. (Rhamnaceae), a Mio-cene fossil from Chiapas, México and paleobiological involvement. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 85, 1–5.
Hernández-Hernández, M. de J., Cruz, J.A., Castañeda-Posadas, C., 2020. Paleoclimatic and vegetation recon-struction of the Miocene southern Mexico using fossil flowers. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 104, 102827. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsam....
Jin, J.J., Yang, M.Q., Fritsch, P.W., van Velzen, R., Li, D.Z., Yi, T.S., 2020. Born migrators: Historical biogeography of the cosmopolitan family Cannabaceae. Journal of Systematics and Evolution 58(4), 461–473. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.12....
Knobloch, E., Mai, D.H., 1986. Monographie der Früchte und Samen in der Kreide von Mitteleuropa. Rozpravy Ústředního ústavu. Geologického 47, 1–219.
Leite, V.G., Mansano, V.F., Teixeira, S.P., 2018. Floral development of Moraceae species with emphasis on the perianth and androecium. Flora 240, 116–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flor....
Leme, F.M., Staedler, Y.M., Schonenberger, J., Teixeira, S.P., 2018. Ontogeny and vascularization elucidate the atypical floral structure of Ampelocera glabra, a tropical species of Ulmaceae. International Journal of Plant Sciences 179, 461–476. https://doi.org/10.1086/697899.
Leme, F.M., Schönenberger, J., Staedler, Y.M., Teixeira, S.P., 2020. Comparative floral development reveals novel aspects of structure and diversity of flowers in Cannabaceae. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 193(1), 64–83. https://doi.org/10.1093/botlin....
Leroy, J.-F., 1961. Un deuxième Aphananthe (Ulmacee) du Mexique. Journal d’Agriculture Traditionnelle et de Botanique Appliquée 8, 72–74.
Licari, G.R., 1960. Geology and Amber Deposits of the Simojovel Area, Chiapas, Mexico (Master Thesis). University of California, Berkeley.
Manchester, S.R., 1987. Extinct ulmaceous fruits from the Tertiary of Europe and Western North America. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 52, 119–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-6....
Manchester, S.R., 1989. Systematic and fossil history of the Ulmaceae. In: Crane, P.R., Blackmore, S. (eds), Evolu-tion, systematics and fossil history of Hamamelidae, 2. Oxford, UK. pp. 221–251.
Manchester, S.R., 1994. Fruits and seeds of the Middle Eocene Nut Beds Flora, Clarno Formation, Oregon. Palae-ontographica Americana 58, 1–205.
Manchester, S.R., 1999. Biogeographical Relationships of North American Tertiary Floras. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 86(2), 472–522. https://doi.org/10.2307/266618....
Manchester, S.R., Akhmetiev, M.A., Kodrul., T., 2002. Leaves and fruits of Celtis aspera (Newberry) comb. nov. (Celtidaceae) from the Paleocene of North America and eastern Asia. International Journal of Plant Sciences 163, 725–736. https://doi.org/10.1086/341513.
Nee, M., 1984. Ulmaceae. Flora de Veracruz. Fascículo 40. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones sobre recursos bióticos, pp. 1–39.
Ojeda, M., Vega, F.J., Rivas, G., 2023. Ceratozetidae (Acari: Oribatida) from lower Miocene Mexican amber, in-cluding a new species of Trichoribates Berlese, 1910. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 121, 104165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsam....
Palacios-Chávez, R., Rzedowski, J., 1993. Estudio palinológico de las floras fósiles del Mioceno Inferior y principios del Mioceno Medio de la Región de Pichucalco, Chiapas, México. Acta Botánica Mexicana 24, 1–96.
Payer, J.B., 1857. Traité d’organogénie comparée de la fleur. Paris: Librairie de Victor Masson.
Pedersoli, G.D., Leme, F.M., Leite, V.G., Teixeira, S.P., 2019. Anatomy solves the puzzle of explosive pollen release in wind-pollinated urticalean rosids. American Journal of Botany 106(3), 489–506. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajb2.1....
Pedersoli, G.D., Staedler, Y.M., Schönenberger, J., Teixeira, S.P., 2022. A comparative approach reveals diversity of floral developmental processes in Urticaceae, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 200(4), 465–490. https://doi.org/10.1093/botlin....
Pennington, D., Sarukhán, J., 2016. Árboles tropicales de México Manual para la identificación de las principales especies. Tercera edición. Dirección General de Publicaciones y Fomento Editorial.
Perrilliat, M.C., Vega, F.J., Coutiño, M., 2010. Miocene mollusks from the Simojovel area in Chiapas, southwestern Mexico. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 30, 111–119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsam....
Poinar, G.O. Jr., 2002. Fossil palm flowers in Dominican and Mexican amber. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 138, 57–61.
Poinar, G.O. Jr., 2022. Flowers in amber. Springer Nature Switzerland AG, Cham, pp. 1–215. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-....
Poinar, G.O. Jr., Brown, A.E., 2002. Hymenaea mexicana sp. nov. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) from Mexican amber indicates Old World connections. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 139, 125–132. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1095....
Poinar, G.O. Jr., Kevan, P.G., Jackes, B.J., 2016. Fossil species in Boehmerieae (Urticaceae) in Dominican and Mexican amber: a new genus (Ekrixanthera) and two new species with anemophilous pollination by explosive pollen release. Botany 94, 599–606. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjb-20....
Serrano-Sánchez, M. de L., Hegna, T.A., Schaaf, P., Pérez, L., Centeno-García, E., Vega, F.J., 2015. The aquatic and semiaquatic biota in Miocene amber from the Campo LA Granja mine (Chiapas, Mexico): paleoenvironmental implications. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 62, 243–256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsam....
Sharp, A., 1958. Mirandaceltis a new genus from Mexico. Botanical Sciences 23, 38–42. https://doi.org/10.17129/botsc....
Shephard, H.L., Parker, J.S., Darby, P., Ainsworth, C.C., 2000. Sexual development and sex chromosomes in hop. New Phytologist 148, 397–41.
Simpson, M., 2019. Plant Systematics. 3rd Edition, Elsevier-Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/C2015-....
Soepadmo, E., 1977. Ulmaceae. Flora Malesiana 8(2), 31–76.
Solórzano-Kraemer, M.M., 2007. Systematic, paleoecology and paleobiogeography of the insect fauna from the Mexican amber. Paleontographica Abt. A 282, 1–33. https://doi.org/10.1127/pala/2....
Solórzano-Kraemer, M.M., 2010. Mexican amber. In: Panney, D. (Ed.), Biodiversity of Fossil in Amber from the Major World Deposits. Siri Scientific Press, Manchester, pp. 42–56.
Stevens, P.F., 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017.
Sytsma, K.J., Morawetz, J., Chris Pires, J., Nepokroeff, M., Conti, E., Zjhra, M., Hall, J.C., Chase, M.W., 2002. Urticalean rosids: Circumscription, rosid ancestry, and phylogenetics based on rbcL, trnL-F, and ndhF se-quences. American Journal of Botany 89(9), 1531–1546. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.89....
Vega, F.J., Torrey-Nyborg, M.A., Coutaño, J.S., Hernández-Monzón, O., 2009. Neogene Crustacea from southeastern Mexico. Bulletin of the Mizunami Fossil Museum 35, 51–69.
Weyland, W., Pflug, H.D., Jähnischen, H., 1958. Celtoidanthus pseudorobustus n. gen., n. sp. eine Ulmaceen- Blüte aus Braunkohle der Niederlausitz. Palaeontographica B 105, 67–74.
Wolfe, J.A., 1975. Some aspects of plant geography of the Northern Hemisphere during the late Cretaceous and Tertiary. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 162, 264–279.
Yang, M-Q., van Velzen, R.V., Bakker, F.T., Sattarian, A., Li, D.Z., Yi, T.S., 2013. Molecular Phylogenetics and character evolution of Cannabaceae. Taxon 62(3), 473–485. https://doi.org/10.12705/623.9.
Yang, M-Q., Li, D-Z., Wen, J., Yi, T-S., 2017. Phylogeny and biogeography of the amphi-Pacific genus Aphananthe. PLoS ONE 12(2), e0171405. https://doi.org/10.1371/journa....
Zachos, J., Pagani, M., Sloan L., Thomas, E., Billups, K., 2001. Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present. Science 292, 686–693. https://doi.org/10.1126/scienc....
Zavada, M.S., Crepet, W.L., 1981. Investigations of angiosperms from the Middle Eocene of North America: Flowers of the Celtidoideae. American Journal of Botany 68, 924–33. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1537....
Zavada, M.S., Kim, M., 1996. Phylogenetic analysis of Ulmaceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution 200, 13–20. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF0098....
Zhang, S., Soltis, D.E., Yang, Y., Li, D., Yi, T., 2011. Multi-gene analysis provides a well-supported phylogeny of Rosales. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60, 21–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympe....
A new extinct member of the resin producer group of the Mexican amber: Hymenaeaphyllum mirandae n. gen. n. sp. (Detarioideae-Leguminosae)
Ana L. Hernández-Damián, Marco A. Rubalcava-Knoth, Sergio R.S. Cevallos-Ferriz
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top