Cretaceous and Paleogene Fagaceae from North America and Greenland: evidence for a Late Cretaceous split between Fagus and the remaining Fagaceae
More details
Hide details
University of Vienna, Department of Palaeontology, Althanstraße 14 (UZA II), 1090 Vienna, Austria
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Palaeobiology, P.O.Box 50007, 10405 Stockholm, Sweden
Online publication date: 2016-12-13
Publication date: 2016-12-13
Acta Palaeobotanica 2016; 56(2): 247–305
Modern lineages of the beech family, Fagaceae, one of the most important north-temperate families of woody flowering plants, have been traced back to the early Eocene. In contrast, molecular differentiation patterns indicate that the Fagus lineage, Fagoideae, with a single modern genus, evolved much earlier than the remaining lineages within Fagaceae (Trigonobalanoideae, Castaneoideae, Quercoideae). The minimum age for this primary split in the Fagaceae has been estimated as 80 ± 20 Ma (i.e. Late Cretaceous) in recently published, time-calibrated phylogenetic trees including all Fagales. Here, we report fagaceous fossils from the Campanian of Wyoming (82–81 Ma; Eagle Formation [Fm]), the Danian of western Greenland (64–62 Ma; Agatdal Fm), and the middle Eocene of British Columbia (ca 48 Ma; Princeton Chert), and compare them to the Fagaceae diversity of the recently studied middle Eocene Hareøen Fm of western Greenland (42–40 Ma). The studied assemblages confirm that the Fagus lineage (= Fagoideae) and the remainder of modern Fagaceae were diverged by the middle Late Cretaceous, together with the extinct Fagaceae lineage(s) of Eotrigonobalanus and the newly recognised genus Paraquercus, a unique pollen morph with similarities to both Eotrigonobalanus and Quercus. The new records push back the origin of (modern) Fagus by 10 Ma and that of the earliest Fagoideae by 30 Ma. The earliest Fagoideae pollen from the Campanian of North America differs from its single modern genus Fagus by its markedly thicker pollen wall, a feature also seen in fossil and extant Castaneoideae. This suggests that a thick type 1 foot layer is also the plesiomorphic feature in Fagoideae although not seen in any of its living representatives. The Danian Fagus pollen of Greenland differs in size from those of modern species but is highly similar to that of the western North American early Eocene F. langevinii, the oldest known beech so far. Together with the Quercus pollen record, absent in the Campanian and Danian formations but represented by several types by the middle Eocene, this confirms recent dating estimates focussing on the genera Fagus and Quercus, while rejecting estimates from all-Fagales-dated trees as too young. The basic Castaneoideae pollen type, still found in species of all five extant genera of this putatively paraphyletic subfamily, represents the ancestral pollen type of most (modern) Fagaceae (Trigonobalanoideae, Castaneoideae, Quercoideae).
Staminate inflorescences with in situ pollen from Eocene Baltic amber reveal high diversity in Fagaceae (oak family)
Eva-Maria Sadowski, Alexander Schmidt, Thomas Denk
Fagaceae in the Eocene Palynoflora of the South of Primorskii Region: New Data on Taxonomy and Morphology
N. Naryshkina, T. Evstigneeva
Paleontological Journal
Tiny pollen grains: first evidence of Saururaceae from the Late Cretaceous of western North America
Friðgeir Grímsson, Guido Grimm, Reinhard Zetter
A myricaceous male inflorescence with pollen in situ from the middle Eocene of Europe
Volker Wilde, Herbert Frankenhäuser, Olaf Lenz
Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments
Eocene Loranthaceae pollen pushes back divergence ages for major splits in the family
Friðgeir Grímsson, Paschalia Kapli, Christa-Charlotte Hofmann, Reinhard Zetter, Guido Grimm
Plastid Genome Comparative and Phylogenetic Analyses of the Key Genera in Fagaceae: Highlighting the Effect of Codon Composition Bias in Phylogenetic Inference
Yanci Yang, Juan Zhu, Li Feng, Tao Zhou, Guoqing Bai, Jia Yang, Guifang Zhao
Frontiers in Plant Science
Illustrated Pollen Terminology
Heidemarie Halbritter, Silvia Ulrich, Friðgeir Grímsson, Martina Weber, Reinhard Zetter, Michael Hesse, Ralf Buchner, Matthias Svojtka, Andrea Frosch-Radivo
Air and surface soil samples – two different pairs of shoes? Comparing the pollen spectrum on different days of the pollen season
Katharina Bastl, Maximilian Bastl, Uwe Berger, Martina Weber
Reinhard Zetter, an appreciation
David Ferguson, Friðgeir Grímsson, Martina Weber
Comparative analysis of the complete chloroplast genomes of six white oaks with high ecological amplitude in China
Xue Liu, Ermei Chang, Jianfeng Liu, Zeping Jiang
Journal of Forestry Research
New Jersey's paleoflora and eastern North American climate through Paleogene–Neogene warm phases
Sabine Prader, Ulrich Kotthoff, David Greenwood, Francine McCarthy, Gerhard Schmiedl, Timme Donders
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology
Eocene Fagaceae from Patagonia and Gondwanan legacy in Asian rainforests
Peter Wilf, Kevin Nixon, Maria Gandolfo, N. Cúneo
Oaks Physiological Ecology. Exploring the Functional Diversity of Genus Quercus L.
Eduardo Barrón, Anna Averyanova, Zlatko Kvaček, Arata Momohara, Kathleen Pigg, Svetlana Popova, José Postigo-Mijarra, Bruce Tiffney, Torsten Utescher, Zhe Zhou
A Winteraceae pollen tetrad from the early Paleocene of western Greenland, and the fossil record of Winteraceae in Laurasia and Gondwana
Friðgeir Grímsson, Guido Grimm, Alastair Potts, Reinhard Zetter, Susanne Renner
Journal of Biogeography
Combined LM and SEM study of the middle Miocene (Sarmatian) palynoflora from the Lavanttal Basin, Austria: Part V. Magnoliophyta 3 – Myrtales to Ericales
Friđgeir Grímsson, Johannes Bouchal, Alexandros Xafis, Reinhard Zetter
Biogeography in the Sub‐Arctic
Friðgeir Grímsson, Thomas Denk, Reinhard Zetter
Reconstructing leaf area from fragments: testing three methods using a fossil paleogene species
Agathe Toumoulin, Lutz Kunzmann, Karolin Moraweck, Lawren Sack
American Journal of Botany
Pollen morphology of some species of the genus Quercus L. (Fagaceae) in the Southern Caucasus and adjacent areas
Alla Hayrapetyan, Angela Bruch
Acta Palaeobotanica
Oaks Physiological Ecology. Exploring the Functional Diversity of Genus Quercus L.
Thomas Denk, Guido Grimm, Paul Manos, Min Deng, Andrew Hipp
Comparative systematics and phylogeography ofQuercusSectionCerrisin western Eurasia: inferences from plastid and nuclear DNA variation
Marco Simeone, Simone Cardoni, Roberta Piredda, Francesca Imperatori, Michael Avishai, Guido Grimm, Thomas Denk
Oaks: an evolutionary success story
Antoine Kremer, Andrew Hipp
New Phytologist